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A PRACTICAL SYSTEM 


OP 

MODERN GEOGRAPHY* 

OR A 

VIEW OF THE PRESENT STATE OF 

THE WORLD. 

Simplified and adapted to the capacity of Youth. 
CONTAINING NUMEROUS TABLES, 

' limiting the Divisions, Settlement, Population, Extent, Lak6s, 
Canals, and the various Institutions of the United States, and 
Europe; the different forms of Government, Prevailing Reli- 
gions, the Latitude and Longitude of the Principal Places on the 
Globe. 



EMBELLISHED WITH NUMEROUS ENGRAVINGS OF 

ittautim, (Customs, &c. ✓ 

ACCOMPANIED BY A NEW AND IMPROVED 

ATI, ASK If' 

BY Jf OLNEY. if 
_ » 

Fourth Edition. 

HARTFORD, D. F. ROBINSON & C0. 
Sold by all the principal Booksellers in the U. S,. 

1830. 

H 


» > 

> > * 





\ 

1 


DISTRICT OF CONNECTICUT, SS . 

Be it remembered, That on the sixteenth day of December, 
li. S. in the fifty-third year of the Independence of the United 
States of America, D. F. Robinson &, Co. of the said Dis- 
trict have deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right 
whereof they claim as Proprietors, in the words following to wit : 
“ A practical system of modern Geography, or a view of the pres- 
ent state of the world, simplified and adapted to the capacity of 
youth ; containing numerous tables, exhibiting the divisions, set- 
tlement, population, extent, lakes, canals, and the various institu- 
tions of the United States and Europe ; the different forms of gov- 
ernment, prevailing religions, the latitude and longitude of the 
principal places on the globe, embellished with numerous engra- 
vings of manners, customs, &c. accompanied by a new and im- 
proved Atlas. By J. Olney.” In conformity to the act of Congress 
of the United States, entitled, “ An act for the encouragement of 
learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts and Books, to the 
authors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein 
mentioned.” — And also to the act, entitled, u An act supplemen- 
tary to an act, entitled, 4 An act for the encouragement of learn- 
ing, by securing the copies of maps, charts, and books, to the au- 
thors and proprietors of such copies, during the times therein 
mentioned,’ and extending the benefits thereof to the arts of de- 
signing, engraving, and etching historical and other prints.” 

CHARLES A. INGERSOLL, 

Clerk of the District of Connecticut. 

A true copy of Record, examined and sealed by me, 

CHA’S A. INGERSOLL, 

Clerk of the District of Connecticut . 



PREFACE 


The introduction of Geography into common schools, as a regular 
branch of education, has of late years become nearly universal. 
Formerly this science was taught only to the higher classes, it be- 
ing thought .by most teachers that the pupil must be well advanced 
in other branches before he could study this with advantage. Ex- 
perience has however taught, that children can learn Geography 
at a very early age, and hence its introduction into the younger 
classes at the present time. 

But among the books which have been published on this sub- 
ject, although many of them are works of great merit, there are 
none suited to the capacities of young beginners. Most of them 
begin with definitions, which, to be understood, requires a degree 
of knowledge on the subject, never possessed by the new beginner. 
Children instead of being made to commit definitions to memory, 
should as much as possible, at the beginning, be taught by the eye ; 
and hence the use of maps, pictures, and diagrams, in teaching in- 
fants. The map is to Geography, what orthography is to the art of 
reading. The scholar must not only understand its use, but must 
have an intimate knowledge of all its parts, before he can undertake 
the study of descriptive geography with advantage. When he has 
acquired a thorough and practical knowledge of the map of a coun- 
try, he has then laid the ground work for understanding its descrip- 
tion, and not before. Suppose a child should learn by heart every 
thing about the climate, scenery, and productions of Switzerland, 
for instance, and suppose him to be intimate with the names of all 
its mountains, lakes, and forests, how much knowledge of the ge- 
ography of that country would he possess ? ft is obvious that with- 
out knowing also the relative situation of these mountains, lakes, 
and forests, in respect to each other, together with their distances 
and bearings, such knowledge never could be applied to any prac- 
tical use. The map then, ought to be the first lesson in geography, 
for by its means, the child can locate his ideas, and can see at a sin- 
gle glance, the situation of the places, the names of which he 
learns. 

Having been for a number of years occupied in the instruction 
of youth, and principally in the science of Geography, I have, in 
common with others, long regretted that no work well adapted to 
the instruction of youth on this subject could be obtained, and my 
excuse for offering the present volume to the public is founded on 
that fact. A practical knowledge of geography, instead of requir- 
ing years, 1 am taught by experience to believe, may be obtained 
in a few months ; and I cannot but hope that others will find this 
opinion well founded. 

in preparing this work, I have endeavoured to adapt it to the 
natural progress of the youthful mind. Instead of introducing the 
beginner at once into Astronomical Geography, and requiring him 


VI 


PREFACE. 


to spend weeks in learning definitions, and the descriptions of the 
heavenly bodies, I have commenced with the 'town in which he 
lives. From the town, the sphere of his observation is extended 
to the county, and from the county to the state, <fcc. This I am 
confident will be found not only the natural, but the philosophi- 
cal method of teaching Geography ; for on all subjects, the learn- 
er must make himself master of simple things, before he can un- 
derstand complex ones. 

In the present instance, the pupil begins with confidence and 
alacrity, because he not only knows something about his own town, 
but the subject itself is highly interesting to him. From these 
simple descriptions, the pupil is gradually led on, by a series of the 
plainest and most important questions to a knowledge of the grand 
divisions of the globe. When he has become familiar with these 
divisions, and can without hesitation point them out on the map, he 
is qualified to commence on the Second part. On this part, after a 
few general observations on the divisions, he is required to learn on 
the map, the boundaries, names of rivers, towns, &c. and then he 
commences with the descriptions of the several countries which it 
contains. Irt every department of description, great care has been 
taken to sqlect what is most important for the pupil to know, and 
to commit to memory, and to reject whatever is of little use ; for 
experience has taught me that long descriptions, however judi- 
ciously arranged, do not fail to tire and discourage the young pu- 
pil. Some of the most prominent features of the country are 
therefore all that should be required of the beginner. 

This work will be found to possess some peculiarities. The use 
of initial letters, in particular, I consider of much consequence in 
enabling the pupil to determine the correct answers ; so that it is 
believed in going through the entire work, he will seldom require 
any assistance from his teacher. 

The Thirdpart treats of Latitude and Longitude ; and perhaps 
no part of the work is of more importance than this, and particu- 
larly as most books of this kind are deficient in this respect. 

The Fourth part contains an introduction to Astronomy and 
Physical Geography, together with problems on the Globes, and 
a Table of Latitude and Longitude of all the principal places on 
the earth. 

The numerous tables which the work contains, it is hoped will 
be found useful and correct. Some of them have been copied 
with little variation from Morse and Malte Brun, and others have 
been arranged with much care and considerable labor, expressly 
for the work. 

In giving this little volume to the public, I cannot but entertain 
the hope, that I shall contribute in some degree to our improved 
method of teaching a science so necessary and popular as that of 
Geography. But how far I shall have the satisfaction of seeing 
this hope realized, the public must determine. 

Hartford^ Dec. 1828. 


JESSE OLNEY. 


PART FIRST. 



INTRODUCTION TO GEOGRAPHY. 

Q,. What is Geography ? 

A. A description of the Earth. 

Q. What is the Earth? 

A. It is a large Globe or ball : its diameter is 
about eight thousand miles, and its circumference 
nearly twenty-five thousand. 

Q. Of what is the surface of the earth composed ? 

A. Land and water. 

Q. How much of the Earth's surface is land? 

A. About one third : the rest is water. 


NATURAL DIVISIONS OF LAND. 

Q. How is the land divided ? 

A. Into continents, Islands, Peninsulas, Isth- 
muses, Capes, Promontories, Mountains, Shores, 
or Coasts. 

Q. What is a Continent? 

A. It is a vast extent of land, not separated 
by water ; as America. 

Q. What is an Island ? 

A. It is a portion of land surrounded by wa- 
ter; as Iceland, Cuba, New Holland, Borneo, &c, 

Q. What is a Peninsula ? 

A. It is a portion of land almost surrounded 
by water ; as S. America, Yucatan, Morea, &c. 

Q. What is an Isthmus ? 

A. It is a neck of land which joins a peninsula 
to a continent, or unites two parts of a continent ; 
as the Isthmus of Darien, Isthmus of ISuez, &,c. 


8 


INTRODUCTION. 


Q. What is a Cape ? 

A. It is a point of land extending into the sea ; 
as Cape Horn, Cape of Good Hope, &c. 

Q. What is a Promontory ? 

A. It is a high point of land extending into 
the sea ; as the southern part of S. America. 

Q. What is a mountain ? 

A. It is a vast elevation of land ; as the An- 
des, Alps, &c. 

[When the land rises only to a small height, it is called a 

Hill.] 

Mention some mountain that you have seen, 

Q. What is a Volcano? 

A. It is a mountain that emits fire and smoke 
from its top ; as Mount Etna, Vesuvius, Heel a. 

Q. What is a Shore or Coast ? 

A. It is the edge of land, bordering on a sea, 
lake, or river ; as the coast of Guinea, &c. 


DIVISIONS OF WATER. 

Q. How is the water divided ? 

A. Into Oceans, Seas, * Archipelagoes, Gulfs 
dr Bays, Lakes, Straits, Channels, Sounds, Riv- 
ers, Firths or Friths, Harbors, Roads. 

Q. W hat is an Ocean ? 

A. It. is a vast collection of water, not separa- 
ted by land ; as the Atlantic, Pacific, &c. 

Q. What is a Sea ? 

A. It is a large collection of salt water, mostly 
surrounded by land ; as the Mediterranean, Bal- 
tic, Black Sea, &c. 

What is an Archipelago? 

A. It is a sea interspersed with numerous isl- 
ands ; as the Grecian Archipelago. 

Q. What is a Gulf, or Bay ? 


* Ar-ke-pel'a-goes. 


INTRODUCTION. 


9 


A. It is a part of the sea, extending into the 
land, as the Gulf of Mexico, Baffin’s Bay, &c. 

[Small Bays are called Creeks, Coves, Havens, &c.] 

Q. What is a Lake ? 

A. It is a collection of fresh water, surround- 
ed by land ; as Lake Superior, Erie, Ontario. 

[Salt lakes are called seas ; as the Caspian Sea, Aral Sea. 
Small lakes are called Ponds.] 

Q. What is a Strait ? 

A. It is a narrow passage of water, connect- 
ing two seas, or a sea with the ocean ; as the 
Straits of Gibraltar, Bhering’s Straits, &c. 

Q. What is a Channel ? 

A. It is a passage of water, wider than a strait; 
as the English Channel, St. George’s Channel, &c. 

Q. What is a Sound ? 

A. It is a strait so shallow, that its depth may 
be measured with a lead and line ; as Long Isl- 
and Sound, Albemarle Sound, Pamlico Sound. 

Q. What is a River ? 

A. It is a large stream of water, formed by 
numerous branches, flowing from mountains, or 
high land into the sea ; as the Connecticut, Vol- 
ga, Hudson, <^c. 

[The place where a river rises, is called its source , and the 
place where it empties, its mouth . Small rivers are called 
brooks, rivulets, rills, &c.] 

Mention a river that you have seen. 

Q. W hat is a Firth or Frith ? 

A. It is the widening of a river towards its 
mouth, into an arm of the sea ; as the Firth of 
Forth, Murray Firth. * 

Q. What is a Harbor ? ^ 

A. It is a small part of the sea, almost sur- 
rounded by land, where ships may lie in safety ; 
as Boston Harbor. 

Q. What is a Road ? 


10 


INTRODUCTION. 


A. It is a place of anchorage, some distance 
from the shore ; as Hampton Roads, at the mouth 
of James River. 


Q. What is a Hemisphere ? 

A. Half a Globe. 

[ When the Earth is divided into two equal parts, from 
pole to pole, these parts are called the Eastern and W estern 
Hemispheres ; if divided into two equal parts, from East to 
West, at the equator, they are called Northern and Southern 
Hemispheres.] 

J Q. What is the Equator ? 

A. It is a line drawn round the earth, at an 

< * 

equal distance from each pole. 

Point to the Equator. 

Q. What are Meridians ? 

A. They are circles passing from pole to pole, 
cutting the equator at right angles. 

Point to a Meridian. 

Q. What are the tropics ? 

A. They are circles drawn parallel to the 
equator, at the distance of twenty-three and a 

half degrees north and south of it. 

Point to the tropic of Cancer ; to the tropic of Capricorn. 
Q. What are the Polar Circles ? 

A. They are circles drawn parallel to the tro- 
pics, at the distance of twenty-three and a half 

degrees from the poles. 

Point to the Arctic circle ; Antarctic circle. 

Q. What is Latitude ? 

A. It is distance from the equator, either 
north or south . 

[Places that are north of the equator, are in north latitude ; 
places south of the equator are in south latitude.] 

What is Longitude ? 

A. Distance from any given meridian, either 
east or west. 

Q. IIow many miles make a degree ? 


INTRODUCTION. 


11 


A. Sixty geographic miles, or sixty-nine and 
a half English miles. 

[If you know the number of degrees between any two pla- 
ces, by multiplying them by sixty-nine and a half, you will 
have the distance in English miles.] 

Q. What are Zones ? 

A. They are divisions of the earth’s surface, 
made by the tropics and polar circles. 

How many zones are there ? 

A. There are five — one lor rid , two temperate , 

and two frigid . 

Q. How will you describe them ? 

A. The Torrid Zone is that part of the earth’s 
surface, which lies between the Tropic of Cancer, 
and the Tropic of Capricorn. The Temperate 
Zones include those portions which lie between 
the tropics and the polar circles. The Frigid 
Zones extend from the polar circles to the poles. 

Point out the different zones on the map. 

Q. What is a Map ? 

A. It is a representation of a part, or the 
whole of the earth’s surface, on a plane. 

[A collection of Maps is called an Atlas.] 

Q. How is Latitude expressed on Maps ? 

A. By figures which run up or down the sides ; 
if the figures increase upwards , the latitude is 
north; if downwards , the latitude is south . 

Q. How is Longitude expressed on Maps? 

A. By figures on the top and bottom of the 
map ; if the figures increase from right to left, 
the longitude is west ; if from left to right, the 
longitude is east. 

Q. How many cardinal points of the compass are there ? 

A. Four ; viz. North, East, South, West. Be- 
sides these points, there are four others, viz. 


12 


INTRODUCTION. 


North-East, South-East, South-West, North- 
West. 

Q. What does the top of the Map represent ? 

A. The top represents the north ; the right 
hand , east ; the bottom , south ; the left hand , west. 

NORTH. 


H 

co 

W 

£ 


N. West 

Northern 

N. East 

Western 

Interiour 

Easter n 

S. West 

Southern 

S. East. 


W 


SOUTH. 


Questions on the Map . 

[That the pupil may fully understand the definitions of 
Physical Geography, let him take the Map of the World, 
and point out the following questions.] 


Point to a Continent. 
Point to an Island. 
Point to a Peninsula. 
Point to an Isthmus. 
Point to a Cape. 
Point to a Coast. 


What is a Continent ? 
What is an Island ? 

What is a Peninsula ? 
What is an Isthmus ? 

What is a Cape ? 

What is a Shore or Coast? 


What is an Ocean ? 
What is a Sea ? 
What is a Gulf? 
What is a Lake ? 
What is a Strait ? 
What is a Channel ? 


Point to an Ocean. 
Point to a Sea. 
Point to a Gulf. 
Point to a Lake. 
Point to a Strait. 
Foint to a Channel. 


INTRODUCTION. 


13 


Point to the Atlantic Ocean. 

Point to the Pacific Ocean. 

Point to the Mediterranean Sea. 

Point to the Gulf of Mexico. 

Point to Europe — Asia — Africa — North America — South 
America — New Holland — Greenland. 


Point to the Equator. What is the Equator ? 

Point to the T ropic of Cancer. W hat are the Tropics ? 

Point to a parallel of latitude. 

In what direction do parallels of latitude run ? 

How many parallels of latitude are drawn on the map of 
the World ? Point to each one. 

Point to a Meridian. VVliat are Meridians ? 

In what direction do Meridians run ? 

How many Meridians are drawn on the map of the World? 
Point to each one of them. 

Why are the parallels and meridians curved on the map ? 

A. To represent circles on the Globe. * 

From what is latitude reckoned ? What is latitude ? 
How many degrees of Latitude are there ? Point to the 
number. 

What zone is included between the tropic of Cancer and 
the tropic of Capricorn? What zone lies between the tropic 
of Cancer and the Arctic circle ? Between the Arctic circle 
and the North pole ? Between the tropic of Capricorn and 
the Antarctic circle ? Between the Antarctic circle and the 
South Pole ? 


JJoltttcal ©epjtrajjlis. 

Q. What are the Political Divisions? 

A. They are portions of the earth, which usu- 
ally contain men of one nation, speaking one lan- 
guage, and subject to the same laws. 

Q. Which are the principal political divisions of the earth ? 

A. Empires, kingdoms, dutchies, republics, &c. 

Q. What is an Empire? 

A. It consists of several countries subject to 
one man, who is usually styled emperor' ; as the 
Russian Empire. 


2 


14 


INTRODUCTION. 


Q. What is a Kingdom ? 

A. It consists of one country, subject to a 
monarch, who is called a king ; as the kingdom 
of France. 

Q. What is a Dutchy, Grand Dutchy, or Principality ? 

A. It is a smaller portion of a country, subject 
either to a duke , grand duke , or prince, who is 
himself subject to the sovereign power ; as the 
Grand Dutchy of Baden. 

Q. What is a Republic ? 

A. It consists of several states, united under 
one general government, for their common safety 
and welfare. The chief officer is styled & presi- 
dent ; as the Republic of the United States, 

Mexico, &c. 

Q. What is a State ? 

A. It is a tract of country, in which the people 
possess the power of choosing their own rulers, 
and of making their own laws, in all local con- 
cerns ; but subject to a general government in all 
matters pertaining to the common interest of the 
confederacy. The chief officer is styled a gover- 
nour ; as the state of Connecticut, New-York, &c. 

Q. What is a County ? 

A. It is a circuit, or portion of a state, divided 
for political purposes, and for the more easy ad- 
ministration of justice. 

. Q. W^hat is a Town ? 

A. It is a tract of land in a state, next in ex- 
tent to a county; and is incorporated, with local 
rights and privileges, for the convenience of its 
inhabitants. 

Questions . 

[Before the pupil commences the exercises on the Maps, 
let him be required to distinguish the different points of the 
compass, without any reference to the Map.] 


INTRODUCTION. 


15 


Point to the North. 

Point to the East. 

Point to the South. 

Point to the West. 

Point to the North-East. 
Point to the South-East. 
Point to the South-West. 
Point to the North-West. 


[Let the Pupil take the Map and answer the following 
questions.] 

Which part of the Map is North? Point to it. 

Which part is East? Point to it. 

Which part is South ? Which is West? 

Which part of the Map is North East ? Point to it. 
Which part is South-East? Which is South-West 3 
Which is North-West ? Point to it. 

Between what two points of the compass is North-East ? 
South-East? South-West? Nqrth-West? 


[The following Questions are intended only as a general 
outline of the plan of commencing the study, which must be 
left for the Teacher to fill up, as he may see fit.] 

What is a Town ? 

*In what Town, or City do you live ? 

What Town is north of it ? 

What Town is east of it ? 

What Town is south of it? 

What Town is west of it ? 

Is the Town level or hilly ? 

What is a County ? 

In what County do you live ? 

Which is the fShire Town of this County ? 

In what part of the County do you live ? 

What river flows through the county ? 

* The pupil should draw a map of the town, on a slate or 
paper, and annex the names of the towns which bound it •: 
and if convenient, a map of the county. 

t Where the courts are held. 


16 


INTRODUCTION. 


Is the County level, or hilly ? 

What is a State ? 

In what State do you live ? 

Point out the State on the Map. 

What bounds it on the north? 

What bounds it on the east ? 

What bounds it on the south ? 

What bounds it on the west? 

What is the capital of the state ? 

In what part of the state are you ? 

Under what General Government do you live ? 
Point out the extent of the United States. 

What is the capital of the United States? 

In which Grand Division of the globe are the Uni- 
ted States ? 

With what is North America connected ? 

What do North and South America constitute ? 
What is a Continent ? 


MAP OF THE WORLD. 

How many Continents are there ? 

How is the eastern Continent divided ? 

How is the western Continent divided ? 

In what part of the eastern Continent is Europe ? 

N-W. 

What sea separates Europe from Africa ? m. 
What is a Sea ? 

What sea separates Africa from Asia ? R. 

What ocean lies between Asia and America ? r. 
What is an ocean ? 

What ocean separates America from Europe and 
Africa? a. 

What ocean south of Asia ? 

What ocean surrounds the north pole? 

What ocean surrounds the south pole ? 


INTRODUCTION. 


17 


Which is the largest, the northern or southern 
ocean ? 

Is there more land north or south of the equator ? 

Which is the largest, the eastern, or the western 
continent? e. 

What large Island southeast of Asia ? n-h. 

What is an Island ? 

Between what two oceans is New Holland ? i. 
and p. 

What Islands between North and South America ? 
West Indies. 

What Islands between Asia and New Holland ? 
East Indies. 

Does the eastern, or western continent extend far- 
ther south ? Which extends farthest north ? 

Which extends farther south, Europe or Asia ? a. 

Does Africa, or South America extend farther 
north ? a. 

Which extends farther south, North America, or 
Europe ? n-a. 

What Isthmus connects North and South America ? 

What is an Isthmus ? 

What Isthmus connects Africa and Asia ? Suez. 


How many Grand Divisions of the Globe are 
there ? 

Which is the largest Division ? Asia. 

Which is the second largest ? Africa. 

Which is the third ? North America. 

Which is the fourth ? South America. 

Which is the smallest ? Europe. 

What Grand Divisions does the Equator cross ? 

What Grand Divisions are crossed by the Tropic 
of Cancer ? 

What, by the Tropic of Capricorn ? 

Through what Divisions does the Arctic circle 
pass ? 2* 


18 


INTRODUCTION. 


On which side of the Equator does most of South 
America lie ? 

On which side of the Equator does most of Africa 
lie ? 

Is Asia in north or south latitude ? 

Why in north latitude ? 

Is Africa in north, or south latitude ? 

Why is it in both north and south latitude ? 

In what direction from North America is South 
America? — Europe ? — Africa? — Asia ? 

In what direction from Africa is Asia ? — Europe ? 
— North America ? — South America ? — New Hol- 
land ? — Greenland ? 


What Ocean lies between North America and 
Europe ? — Between Africa and South America? 
What Ocean between Africa and New Holland ? 
What Ocean east of Asia, and west of America? 
What Ocean south of South America, Africa and 
New Holland ? 

What Ocean north of North America, Europe and 
Asia ? 

How many Oceans are there ? 

Which is the largest Ocean ? Pacific. 

Which is the second largest ? Atlantic. 

Which is the third ? Indian. (In-je-an.) 

Which is the fourth ? Southern or xintarctic. 
Which is the smallest Ocean ? Northern or Arctic. 


How many degrees from the Equator to each pole ? 
How many degrees from one pole to the other ? 
How many degrees is it round the globe ? 

How many geographic miles make a degree ? 
How many English miles make a degree ? 

MAP OF NORTH AMERICA. 

Does North America lie in north, or south latitude? 


INTRODUCTION. 


19 


Why, in north latitude ? 

W hat Ocean bounds it on the north ? 
What Ocean lies east of it ? 

What Gulf on the south ? 

What Ocean bounds it on the west ? 


How is North America divided ? 

In what part is British America ? Northern part. 
In what part are the United States? Middle. 
Where is Mexico ? Southwestern part. 

In what part is *Guatimala? Southern part. 
Where are the ^Russian possessions ? n-w. 

What is the Capital of British America ? a. 

What is the Capital of the United States? w. 
What is the Capital of Mexico ? m. 

What is the Capital of Guatimala ? g. 

In what direction from N. America is Greenland ? 
To whom does it belong ? A. To Denmark. 
What bay and Straits separate Greenland from 
North America ? n. and d. 

What Gulf south of the United States? m. 

What Gulf in the western part of Mexico ? c. 
What Gulf east of Lower Canada ? St.-L. 

What is a Gulf or Bay ? 

What Bay west of Greenland ? n. 

What Bay in the northern part of British Ameri- 
ca? H. 

What Bay north of Hudson's Bay ? k. 

What Bay south of Hudson’s Bay ? j. 

What Bay east of Yucatan ? n. 

What Bay west of Yucatan ? c. 


* G wah-te-mah'la. 


t Ru'shian. 


20 


INTRODUCTION. 


What is a Mountain ? 

What Mountains extend from Mexico to the Arc- 
tic ocean ? r. In what direction do they run ? 

What Mountains extend through the eastern part 
of the United States ? a. What is their course ? 


What is a Cape ? 

What Cape south of Greenland ? f. 

What Cape south of Nova Scotia ? s. 

What Cape south of Florida ? s. 

What Cape west of Cuba ? a. 

What Cape south of California ? St.-L. 

What Cape east of Bhering’s straits ? p. w. 

What Island east of Greenland ? i. 

To whom does it belong ? A. To Denmark. 
What large Island east of the gulf of St. Law- 
rence ? N. 

What Islands between North and South Ameri- 
ca ? w. i. 

Which is the largest of these Islands ? c. • 

Which is the second largest ? h. 

Which is the third ? j. — Which is the fourth? p-r. 
What cluster of Isles east of the U. States ? b. 


What is a Lake ? What is a Pond ? 

What six Lakes lie between the U. States and 
British America ? w. s. h. c. e. o. — Which is the 
most eastern ? o. Which the most western ? w. 

Which of these lakes is the largest 1 s. Which 
the smallest ? St. c. 

What large lake lies N. W* of L. Superior ? w. 

What two lakes N. W. of L. Winnipeg? h. 
ands. 

What Lake in Guatimala ? n. (Nic-ar-aw'gua.) 


INTRODUCTION. 


21 


What River runs from Lake Ontario into the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence ? What is its course ? n-e. 

What two rivers empty into the Arctic ocean ? m. 
and c. 

What large river empties into the Pacific ? c. 

What two into the Gulf of California ? g. and c. 

Where does the Mississippi empty ? 

What is a Strait ? What is a Channel ? 

What Strait leads into Baffin’s Bay ? d. 

What Strait is the entrance to Hudson’s Bay ? H. 

What Strait between Newfoundland and Labra- 
dor? B. 

What Strait between N. America and Asia? b. 

In what direction from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
is Hudson’s Bay ? Gulf of California ? Baffin’s 
Bay ? 

Which way from Hudson’s Bay is the Gulf of 
Mexico ? 

In what direction from the Gulf of Mexico is the 
Caribbean Sea ? 

Which way from the Caribbean Sea is the Gulf of 
California ? 

In what direction from the Gulf of California is 
Baffin’s Bay ? 

Which way from Baffin’s Bay is Bhering’s Strait ? 

In what direction from Bhering’s Strait is the 
Isthmus of Darien ? What is an Isthmus ? 

What does the Isthmus of Darien connect ? 

How many Oceans border on North America ? 

What three large Gulfs in N. America? m. l. c. 

Through what part of N. America does the tropic 
of Cancer pass ? Through what part the Arctic 
Circle ? 


22 


INTRODUCTION. 


In what zones does North America lie ? 

In what zones are the West India Islands ? 

In what part of North America do you live ? 

MAP OF THE UNITED STATES. 

In what State do you live ? 

How many States are there ? 

How many Territories are there? 

What Division bounds the United States on the 
north ? b-a. 

What Ocean lies east of the United States ? a. 

What Gulf south of the United States ? m. 

What Ocean west of the U. States Territory ? p. 

In what direction does the coast of the U. States 
run ? n-e. and s-w. 

What is a Shore or Coast ? Point it out on the 
map. 

What six Lakes lie between the U. States and 
Upper Canada? w. s. h. c. e. o. 

What six States and two Territories are bounded 
north by these Lakes and Canadas ? 

What thirteen States border on the Atlantic 
Ocean ? 

What three States and Territory lie on the Gulf 
of Mexico ? 

What States and Territories lie on the Mississippi 
river ? 

What State lies entirely west of the Mississippi 
river ? 

What State lies on both sides of the Mississippi 
river ? 

How many Territories west of the Mississippi ? 

Which is the most western Territory ? 

Which is the most north-eastern State? 


INTRODUCTION. 


23 


Which is the most south-western State ? 

What part of the U. States’ Territory extends far- 
thest south ? F. 

What three States border on Lake Erie ? 

What State lies on Long Island Sound ? 

* In what direction from Connecticut is Maine ? 
Vermont ? New-York ? Rhode-Island ? Ohio ? 

In what direction from Ohio is New-York ? Geor- 
gia? Louisiana? ^Illinois? New-Jersey ? Ver- 
mont ? ^Indiana ? Maryland ? Tennessee ? 

What two Sounds east of N. Carolina ? a. and p. 

What is a Sound ? 

What Sound South of Connecticut ? 

What two Harbours east of New Jersey ? 

What Bay east of Massachusetts ? m. 

What Bay between Nova Scotia and New Bruns- 
wick ? F. 

What Bay on the north west part of Lake Michi- 
gan? (Mish-e-gan'.) g. 

What large river empties into the gulf of Mexi- 
co ? M. 

Which are the three largest western branches of 
the Mississippi river ? m. a. r. 

Which is the largest eastern branch of the Missis- 
sippi ? o. 

What two rivers unite and form the Ohio ? a. m. 

What two unite and form the §Mobile River ? 
Tombigbee and Alabama. 

* In answering the following questions, let the pupil point 
out the direction with his hand as he gives the answer. 

t Il-le-noy'. J In-je-an'-na. $ Mo-beef. 


24 


INTRODUCTION. 


What two the Appalachicola ? Chatahoochee and 
Flint. 

What river forms the boundary between South 
Carolina and Georgia? 

What river separates Virginia and Kentucky from 
Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio ? o. 

What river forms the boundary between Maryland 
and Virginia? p. 

What between New Jersey and Pennsylvania ? d. 

What River in the eastern part of New-York ? h. 

What is the principal branch of the Hudson ? m. 

Which is the largest River in the Eastern States ? c. 

What River empties into Green bay ? f. 

What River forms the boundary between Maine 
and New Brunswick ? St.-c. 

What River forms the boundary between Louisi- 
ana and Mexico ? s. 


What Cape south of Nova Scotia ? s. 

What three Capes east of Massachusetts ? a. c. m. 
What is the eastern point of Long Island called ? m. 
What Cape east of New Jersey ? Sandy Hook. 
What two at the entrance of Delaware Bay ? m. h. 
What two at the entrance of Chesapeake Bay ? 
c. and h. 

What three east of N. Carolina ? H. l. f. 

What two east of Florida ? c. and f. 

What Cape south of Florida ? s. 

What Island south of Connecticut ? 

To what State does Long Island belong ? A. To 
New York. 

What is the principal range of mountains in the 
United States ? a. — What is a mountain ? 

What seven states are intersected by the parallel 
of 40 Q N. latitude ? 


INTRODUCTION. 


25 


What State by the parallel of 30° N. latitude ? 

* Through what States would you pass in travel- 
ling in a straight line from Connecticut to Maine ? 

From Maine to New York ? 

From New York to Virginia ? 

From Virginia to Louisiana ? 

From Louisiana to Ohio ? 

From Ohio to Georgia ? 

From Georgia to Louisiana ? 

From Louisiana to Maine ? 

Through what States would you pass in travelling 
on the coast from Louisiana to Maine ? 

What is the Capital of the United States ? w. 

What is the Capital of Virginia ? r. 

What is the Capital of Georgia? m. 

What is the Capital of New York ? a. — Of 

Maine ? p. New Hampshire ? e. — Massachu- 

setts ? b. — V ermont ? m. — Rhode Island ? p. 
Pennsylvania ? h. — O hio ? c. — South Carolina ? 
c. — Indiana ? i. 

What are the two Capitals of Connecticut ? h. 
and n-h. 

Which is the largest State ? v. 

Which is the smallest State ? r-i. 

In what zone are the United States ? 


The initials of certain rivers in the United States 
spell HARTFORD ; what are their names, and 
where do they empty ? 

What Islands will you pass in sailing from New 
York to South America ? w-i. 

* In learning the following questions, the scholar should ex- 
tend a rule from the centre of one of the given states to the 
centre of the other. 


3 


26 


INTRODUCTION. 


MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

What Sea is north of South America ? 
What Ocean bounds it on the east ? 
What Strait on the south ? 

What Ocean bounds it on the west ? 


* What Isthmus connects it to N. America ? d. 
What is an Isthmus ? 

What are the Divisions of South America ? 
Which is the most northern Division ? c. 

Which is the most southern Division ? p. 

Which is the most eastern Division ? b. 

Which is the most western Division ? p. 

What Divisions lie on the Atlantic Ocean ? 

What Divisions lie on the Pacific ? 

What Division on the Caribbean Sea? c. 

What two Provinces does Colombia embrace ? 

A. New Grenada and Venezuela. 

What name has been given to the interior of S. 
America ? a. 

Which is the largest Division of S. America ? b. 
What two Divisions extend from the Atlantic to 
the Pacific Ocean ? p. c. 

What Desert between Chili and Peru ? a. 

In what Division is the Desert of Atacama ? b. 


What is a River ? 

Which is the largest River in S. America ? a. 
Which is the second largest ? p. 

What two Rivers unite and form the La Plata ? 
p. and u. 

Which is the third River in S. America? o. 

What River empties into the Caribbean Sea ? m. 

What is an Island ? 

What Island at the mouth of the Amazon ? j. 


INTRODUCTION. 


27 


What Island south of Patagonia ? t-d-f. 

What strait separates Terra Del Fuego from Pat- 
agonia ? m. — What is a Strait ? 

What Island south of Chili* ? c. 

What Island west of Chili, remarkable for the re- 
sidence of Alexander Selkirk, or Robinson Crusoe ? 
j-f. 

What Cape north of South America ? v. 

Which is the most eastern Cape ? r. 

Which is the most southern Cape ? h. 

Which is the most western Cape ? b. 

[Imagine yourself standing on the Island of Joannes, and 
answer the following questions, and point out the direction 
with your hand.] 

In what direction from you is Cape Vela I 

Cape St. Roque ? Cape Horn ? Cape Blanco ? 
Isthmus of Darien ? Strait of Magellan ? Boli- 
via ? Colombia ? Patagonia ? Guianaf ? Peru ? 
Chili? Brazil J ? 

Through what Divisions does the Equator pass ? 

Through what does the tropic of Capricorn pass ? 

In what zones is South America ? 

What are Zones ? How many are there 1 

Through what Divisions does the 70th meridian 
of west longitude pass ? What are meridians ? 

Which is the principal chain of mountains ? 

Which is the highest peak of the Andes ? A. Chim- 
borazo ; it is 4 miles high above the level of the sea. 

Which is the next highest peak ? A. Cotopaxi ; 
3 £ miles high. It is a Volcano. 

What is a Volcano 1 What is a Mountain ? 

Between what 2 Capes is S. America the longest ? 

Between what 2 the widest? St.-R. and b. 


* Chee'-le. 


t Gee-an'-na. 


f Bra-zeel'. 


28 


INTRODUCTION. 


What is the Capital of Colombia ? s-d-b. 

What is the Capital of Peru ? l. (Lee'ma.) 

What is the Capital of Brazil ? r-j. 

What is the Capital of the United Provinces ? b. 

What is the Capital of Chili ? s. 

Why are there no towns in Patagonia ? 

A. Because it is inhabited by Indians in a sav- 
age state. 

To whom does Guiana belong ? 

A. To the English, Dutch, and French. Span- 
ish Guiana is included in Colombia ; and Portu- 
guese Guiana, in Brazil. 

What Ocean must you cross, and in what direction 
must you sail, in going from S. America to Europe ? 

MAP OF EUROPE. 

What Ocean lies north of Europe ? a. 

What Grand Division of the Globe east of Eu- 
rope ? A. 

What Sea south of Europe ? m. 

What Ocean bounds Europe on the west ? a. 

Is Europe connected with Asia or Africa ? 

What sea separates it from Africa ? 

What large Empire in the eastern part of Europe ? 

R. 

What is an Empire ? What is a Kingdom ? 

What Kingdom in the south-western part ? p. 

What four divisions of Europe lie on the Medi 
terranean ? s. f. i. t. 

What two on the Black Sea? t. r. 

What five Divisions encompass the Baltic Sea ? 
g. d. s. r. p. 


Which is the largest Division of Europe ? R. 
Which is the second largest Division ? a. 
Which is the third Division ? t. 


INTRODUCTION. 


29 


Which is the smallest Division ? s. 

What Divisions are intersected by the parallel of 
40° N. latitude ? p. s. i. t. 

What by the parallel of 50° ? f. n. g. a. r. 

What by the parallel of GO 0 ? n. s. r. 

Through what Division does the first meridian of 
longitude pass ? e. f. s. 

Through what the 10° of E. longitude ? n. d. p. g. 

S. A* I. 

Through what Division does the 20° of E. longi- 
tude pass ? n. s. P. P. A. T. 

The 30° E. longitude ? r. 

Which is the largest Island in Europe ? g-r. 

What large Island west of Great Britain ? i. 

What large Island west of Norway ? 

What two large Islands west of Italy ? s. c. 

What small Island between Corsica and Italy ? e. 
For what is Elba remarkable ? 

A. For being the place to which Bonaparte 
was first banished, in 1814. 

What large Island south of Italy? s. 

What small Island south of Sicily, on which St. 
Paul was shipwrecked? m. 

What Island south of the Archipelago ? c. 

What is an Archipelago ? 

What large Island in the eastern part of the Med- 
iterranean? c. 

What three Islands near Spain ? i. m. m. 

What four clusters of Islands north and west of 
Scotland ? f. s* o. w. What is an Island ? 


What three Divisons constitute the Kingdom of 
Great Britain ? 

A. England, Wales, and Scotland. 

3 * 


30 


INTRODUCTION. 


What does the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ire- 
land constitute ? 

A. The British Empire. 

What name has been given to the northern part 
of Norway, Sweden and Russia? l. 

What Sea east of Great Britain ? n. 

What Sea between Great Britain and Ireland ? i. 

What Sea between Sweden and Russia? b. 

What Sea in the northern part of Russia ? w. 

What three Seas south of Russia ? c. a. b. 

What three Seas east of Turkey ? b. m. a. 

There are ten Seas in and around Europe ; what 
are their names ? c. a. b. m. a. m. i. n. b. w. 


What Gulf north of the Baltic ? b. 

What two Gulfs east of the Baltic ? f. and r. 
What Gulf east of Italy ? v. 

What Gulf southeast of Italy ? t. 

What Gulf south of France ? l. 

What Bay west of France ? b. 

What Channel between France and England ? e. 
What Channel between Wales and Ireland ? St. g. 
What Channel south of Wales? b. 

What Channel between Ireland and Scotland? n. 
What Channel between Denmark and Norway ? s. 
What Channel between Denmark and Sweden ? c. 
What is a Channel ? What is a Strait ? 


What Strait between England and France ? d. 
What Strait at the entrance of the Mediterrane- 
an? G. 

What Strait between Corsica and Sardinia? b. 
What Strait between Sicily and Italy ? m. 


INTRODUCTION. 


31 


What Strait at the entrance of the Gulf of Ven- 
ce ? o. 


What is a Mountain ? What is a Volcano ? 

What Mountains between Norway and Sweden ? d. 
What Mountains between France and Spain ? p. 
What Mountains in Switzerland ? a. 

Which is the highest peak of the Alps ? 

'A. Mont Blanc, the highest mountain in Europe] 
What Mountains in Italy ? a. 

What Mountains in Austria? c. 

What Mountains in Turkey ? 11. 

What Mountains between Russia and Siberia ? u. 


What Mountain in Sicily ? e. 
What Mountain near Naples ? v. 
What Mountain in Iceland ? n. 


What is a Cape ? What is a Promontory ? 

What Cape north of Norway ? n. 

What Cape south-west of Norway ? n« 

What Cape south-west of England ? l-e. 

What Cape south of Ireland ? c. 

What Cape north of France ? C. La Hogue. 
What Cape north-west of Spain ? o. 

What Cape west of Spain ? f. 

What Cape south-west of Portugal ? St. v 
What Cape south of Italy ? s. 

What Cape south of Turkey ? m. 

What large river rises in Russia and empties into 
the Caspian Sea ? v. 

What river empties into the Sea of Azof? d. 
What River rises in Germany and empties into 
the Black Sea ? d. 

What two Rivers rise in Switzerland? r. and r 


32 


INTRODUCTION. 


What two Rivers empty into the Bay of Biscay ? 
g. and l. 

What river empties into the British Channel ? s. 
What five rivers rise in Spain and empty into the 
Atlantic? g. g. t. d. m. 

Which is the principal river in England ? t. 
Which is the largest river in Ireland ? s. 

Which is the principal river in Norway ? g. 
What is a River ? What is a Lake ? 


What two Lakes in Russia ? o. l. 

What three Lakes in Sweden ? w. w. and Malar. 

What two Lakes in Switzerland ? A. Constance 
and Geneva. 

What is the Capital of England ? l. 

What is the Capital of Portugal ? l. — O f Spain ? 
m. — O f France ? p. — Of Netherlands ? a, — At what 
place in Germany does the Federative Diet hold its 
sessions? A. At Frankfort-on-the-Maine. What 
is the Capital of Denmark ? c.— Of Switzerland ? 

b. — Of Italy ? R. — Of Austria ? v. — Of Turkey ? 

Of Prussia ? b. — Of Russia ? St. p. — Of 

Sweden? s. — Of Norway? b. 


In what direction from England is Norway ? 
Prussia ? Italy ? Spain ? Ireland ? Russia ? 
Portugal ? 

Does Europe lie in north or south latitude ? Why ? 
In what Zones is Europe ? What are Zones ? 
What part is in the north Frigid Zone ? 

Why is there no part of Europe in the Torrid Zone ? 
In what direction from Europe is Asia ? 


MAP OF ASIA. 

What Ocean lies north of Asia ? a. 
What Ocean bounds it on the east ? p. 
What Ocean on the south ? i. 


INTRODUCTION. 


33 


What Grand Division west of Asia ? e* 


What Isthmus connects Africa and Asia ? s. 

- What are the political Divisions of Asia ? 

What Division embraces the northern part ? s. 
What extensive Empire south of Siberia ? c. 
What two Divisions south of the Chinese Empire ? 
h. and f-i. 

What Division in the south-western part of Asia ? 

A. 

What Division north of Arabia ? t. 

What Division east of Turkey r. 

What two Divisions east of Persia ? a. and e. 
What Division north of Afghanistan ? i-t. 

What Sea between Asia and Africa ? r. 

What Sea or Bay between Hindoostan and Farther 
India ? b. 

What Sea east of Farther India ? c. 

What Sea east of China ? b. 

What Sea between China and Corea ? y. 

What Sea between Corea and Niphon ? c. 

What Sea in the eastern part of Siberia ? o. 
What Sea east of Kamtchatka ? k. 

What Sea in the northern part of Siberia ? o. 
What Sea between Nova Zembla and Siberia ? k. 
What Sea west of Independent Tartary ? c. 

What Sea in Independent Tartary ? a. 

What Gulf between Arabia and Persia ? i\ 
What Gulf between Malacca and Cambodia ? s. 
What Gulf east of Tonquin ? t. 

What Gulf in the northern part of New Holland ? 
c. [See Map of the World.] 

What Gulf between Cey-lon' and Hindoostan ? 

A. Gulf of Ma-naar'. 


34 


INTRODUCTION. 


What Gulf at the northern extremity of the Red 
Sea? 

A. The Gulf of Suez. 


What Mountains between Siberia and the Chinese 
Empire ? 

What Mountains between the Chinese Empire and 
Hindoostan ? h. 

Which is the highest peak of the Himmaleh moun- 
tains ? " ' ^ 

A. Dawalageri. — It is five miles high above 
the level of the sea ; being the highest mountain 
on the globe. 

What chain unites the Altay and Himmaleh 
mountains ? b-t. 

What Mountains in the southern part of Hindoo- 
stan ? g. * 

What Mountains in the western part of Turkey ? 
t. 

What Mountains in the northern part of Arabia ? 

Ri 

What Mountains separate Siberia from Russia in 
Europe ? u. — What is a Mountain? 

What is a Peninsula ? 

What Peninsula in the southern part of Farther 
India ? m. 

What Peninsula between the Yellow Sea and the 
Gulf of Corea ? c. 

What Peninsula between the Sea of Okhotsk and 
the sea of Kamtchatka ? k. 


What Cape north of Siberia ? t. 
What Cape south of Kamtchatka ? l. 
What Cape south of Malacca ? r. 
What Cape south of Hindoostan ? c. 


INTRODUCTION. 


35 


What is a Strait ? What is a Channel ? 

What Strait between Asia and N. America ? b. 
What Strait between Malacca and Sumatra ? m. 
What Strait between Sumatra and Java ? s. [See 
the map of the world.] 

What Strait between Borneo and Celebes ? m. 
What Strait between New Holland and New Gui- 
nea ? [See map of the world.] 

What Strait between the Persian Gulf and the 
Gulf of Ormus ? 

A. The Strait of Ormus. 

What Strait is the entrance to the Red Sea ? b. 


What two Rivers unite, and empty into the Per- 
sian Gulf? e. and t. 

What large River rises in Chinese Empire, and 
empties into the Sea of Arabia ? i. 

What two Rivers unite and empty . into the Bay of 
Bengal ? g. b. 

What River empties into the Chinese Sea ? c. 
What River passes through the middle of China 
and empties into the Pacific ? k. 

What River empties into the Yellow Sea ? h-ii. 
What River empties into the Channel of Tartary? a. 
What River empties into the sea of Anadir ? a. 
What three Rivers empty into the Arctic Ocean ? 

L. O. Y. 

What River empties into the sea of Obi ? o. 

What River from Europe empties into the Caspi- 
an Sea ? v. 


What is an Island ? 

AVhat Island south of Hindoostan ? c. 

What Island south of Malacca ? s. 

What Island south-east of Sumatra ? j. — [See 
map of the world.] 


36 


INTRODUCTION. 


What large Island east of Malacca ? b. 

What large Island east of Borneo ? c. 

What large Island south-east of Asia? n-h. — [See 
map of the world.] 

What Island south of New Holland ? v-d-l. 
What large Island north of New Holland ? n-g. 
What cluster of Islands east of Farther India? r. 
What Island in the gulf of Tonquin ? h. 

What large Island east of Corea ? n. 

What two Islands east of the Channel of Tartary ? 
j. s. 

What Island north-west of Siberia ? n-z. 


What Oceans border on Asia ? a. p. i. 

What six Seas east of Asia ? k. o. c. y. b. c. 
What six Seas west of Asia? r. m. a. m. b. a. 


What is the Capital of Turkey ? c. 

What is the Capital of Arabia ? m. 

What is the Capital of Persia ? t. 

Of Afghanistan ? c. — Of Beloochistan ? k. — O f 
Hindoostan ? c. — Of the Birman Empire ? u. — Of 
the Chinese Empire ? r. — Of Independent Tarta- 
ry ? b. — Of Siberia ? A. Tobolsk. 

Where is the Empire of Japan ? 

A. In the east of Asia ; including the Islands 
of Niphon, Kiusiu, Ximo, and Sikoke, besides 
several smaller ones. Its Capital is Jeddo. 

What three Islands does the Equator cross ? s. 

b. c. 

Through what Divisions does the Tropic of Can- 
cer pass ? a. II. F-I. c. 

Through what division the Arctic Circle ? s. 

What divisions are intersected by the parallel of 
10° N. latitude ? h. f-i. 


INTRODUCTION. 


37 


What by the parallel of 20° ? a. h. f-i- 
What by the parallel of 30° ? a. p. b. a. h. c-e. 
What by the parallel of 40 ? t. c. i-t. c-e. 
Through what Divisions does the 80th meridian 
of east longitude pass ? s. c-e. h. 

In what Zones does Asia lie ? 

At what place is Asia connected with Africa ? s. 
What is an Isthmus ? 

If you travel out of Asia into Africa, what is the 
first division you will enter ? e. 


MAP OF AFRICA. 

Wha Sea lies north of Africa ? m. 

What Sea and Ocean east of Africa ? r. and i. 
What Ocean bounds it on the west ? a. 

On which side of the equator does most of Africa 
lie? 

With which of the other Grand Divisions is Africa 
connected ? 

What States in the northern part ? b-s. 

What are their names ? m. a. t. t. b. 

Which is the most western of the Barbary States ? 

M. 

What does Morocco include ? 

A. The former Kingdoms of Tafilet and Fez. 
Which is the most eastern of the Barbary States ? b. 
What Division in the north-eastern part of Afri- 
ca? E. 

What Division south of Fgypt ? n. 

What Division south-west of Nubia ? d. 

What Division east of Darfur ? a. 

What extensive Desert south of the Barbary 
States ? s. 

What large Division south east of the Desert ? s. 

or n. 

What Division west of Nigritia ? s. 

4 


38 


INTRODUCTION. 


What two small Divisions south of Senegambia ? 
s-l. and l. 

What name has been given to the coast between 
Senegambia and the Equator ? g. 

What names have been given to the coast between 
the Equator and the tropic of Capricorn ? l. c. a. b. c. 

What name has been given to the southern part of 
Africa ? s. a. 

What Colony in the southern part of S. Africa ? c. 

What small Division in the eastern part of South 
Africa ? c. 

What is the interior of the southern part of Africa 
called ? e. 

What do we know respecting Ethiopia ? 

A. Nothing except its name, as it has never 
been explored by any, except by those who in- 
habit it. 

What names have been given to the coast between 
South Africa and Abyssinia ? m. m. z. a. 

What Division in the eastern part of the Desert ? f. 

Which is the most northern Cape ? b. 

Which is the most eastern Cape ? g. 

Which is the most southern Cape ? g-h. 

Which is the most western Cape ? v. 

What is a Cape ? What is an Island ? 

Which is the most northern group of the African 
Islands P A.-*-In what direction from Morocco are 
the Azores ? 

What Islands west of Morocco ? m. 

What cluster of Islands south-west of Morocco ? c. 

What Islands west of Senegambia ? c-v. 

What Island west of Cimbebas ? St* h. 

For what is it remarkable ? 


INTRODUCTION. 


39 


A. For the imprisonment and death of Napo- 
leon Bonaparte. 

What large Island ssuth-east of Africa ? m. 

What Islands in the northern part of the Channel 
of Mozambique ? c. — What is a Channel ? 

What two islands east of Madagascar ? f. b. 
What Island near Cape Guardafui ? s. 


What Isthmus unites Africa and Asia ? s. 

How wide is the Isthmus of Suez ? A. 60 miles. 
What Strait at the entrance of the Red Sea ? b. 
What Strait at the entrance of the Mediterranean ? 


G. 

How wide are each of these Straits ? 

A. They are each, in the narrowest part, about 
fifteen miles wide. 

What Channel between Madagascar and Mozam- 
bique ? M. 

What Gulf east of Tunis ? c. 

What Gulf north of Tripoli ? s. 

What Gulf at the northern extremity of the Red 
Sea ? A. The Gulf of Suez. 

What Gulf south of Guinea ? g. 

What Bay near the Cape of Good Hope ? t-b. 


What River rises in the Mountains of the Moon, 
and runs north through Abyssinia, Nubia and Egypt, 
into the Mediterranean ? - n. 

What large River in Nigritia ? t*. 

Where does the Niger empty? 

A. It is not certainly known ; but it is proba- 
ble it empties into the Gulf of Guinea. 

What three rivers in Senegambia ? s. g. g. 

What River separates Senegambia from Guinea ? 

What River separates Loango from Congo ? z~. C 


40 


INTRODUCTION. 


What River in South Africa runs west into the At- 
lantic ? o. 

What River empties into the Channel of Mozam- 
bique ? z. 

What Mountains in the Barbary States ? a. 
What Mountains extend through the middle of 
Africa ? m. 

What Mountains north of Guinea ? k. 


What is the Capital of Egypt ? c. 

What is the Capital of Barca ? d. 

What is the Capital of Tripoli ? t. 

Of Tunis? t. — Of Algiers? a. — Of Morocco ? m. 

What is the principal Town in the Colony of the 
Cape ? c-t. 

What is the Capital of Congo ? St. s. 

What is the Capital of Abyssinia? g. 

In what direction from Tripoli is the Colony of 
the Cape ? Abyssinia ? Senegambia ? Egypt ? 
Morocco? Nubia? G. of Guinea? Fezzan ? 

Through what Divisions of Africa does the Equa- 
tor pass ? 

Through what the Tropic of Cancer ? 

Through what the Tropic of Capricorn ? 

In what Zones does Africa lie ? 

In what direction must you steer, and what ocean 
must you cross in sailing from Africa to N. America ? 


AMERICA. 




PART SECOND* 

Eixmzi. 

Q. What is the extent of the western continent ? 

A. It extends from Cape Horn, lat. 56° south, 
to the Arctic ocean, or perhaps to the north pole. 
It is about 9,000 miles in length, and on an aver- 
age 1,500 miles in breadth, containing 15,000,000 
square miles. 

Q. When and by whom was America discovered ? 

A. In 1492, by * Christopher Columbus, a na- 
tive of Genoa, then in the service of Spain. 

[How many years since the discovery of America ?] 

Q. What was the situation of America at the time of its 
discovery ? 

A. It was a vast wilderness, inhabited by nu- 
merous tribes of Indians, who subsisted princi- 
pally by hunting and fishing. 

Q. How will you describe the climates ? 

A. America has almost every variety of cli- 
mate ; but it is colder than that of the eastern 
continent in the same parallels of latitude. 

[The trifling breadth of the continent ; its elongation to- 
wards the poles ; the ocean whose unbroken surface is swept 
by - the trade winds, the numerous chains of mountains, 

* Columbus was born at Genoa, in 1447. From long study of 
geography, he became fully convinced that there was a new con- 
tinent in the west. To determine this point, he resolved on a 
voyage of discovery. He first applied to the government of Ge- 
noa for assistance, but without success ; — he next applied to Por- 
tugal, but his applications were here rejected ; he next applied to 
Ferdinand and Isabella, the sovereigns of Castile and Arragon, 
who furnished him with three small vessels and 90 men. He sail- 
ed from Palos in Spain, the 3d of August, 1492, and discovered 
San Salvador, the most eastern of the Bahama Isles, Oct. 12th, 
1492. He made four voyages of discovery to this continent ; and 
died at Valladolid in 1506, aged 59. 

4* 


42 


AMERICA. 


whose summits are covered with perpetual snow, produce in 
America a climate much colder than that of Europe or Af- 
rica.*] 

Q. For what is America distinguished ? 

A. For its large rivers, numerous lakes, and 
its lofty and extended ranges of mountains. 

Q. What European nation first settled in America ? 

A. The Spaniards. The vast quantities of 
gold and silver found here, invited them to con- 
quer and colonize the country, soon after its dis- 
covery. They settled principally in Mexico and 
South America. 

Q. What is the probable population of America ? 

A. About 35,000,000, consisting of three class- 
es ; viz. Whites, Negroes, and Indians. 

Q. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude does 
the western continent lie ? 

A. Between 56° S. lat. and 85° N. lat. and be- 
tween 35° and 170° W. longitude. 

Q. How is the continent divided ? 

A. Into North and South America, by a line 
crossing the Isthmus of Darien, between seven 
and eight degrees north latitude. 

Between what two oceans docs the western continent lie ? 
a. and r. — What name is given to the northern part of the 
continent? What is the southern part called ? What Isth- 
mus unites these two portions ? What islands between North 
and South America? Which is the largest, North or South 
America ? Which approaches nearest to the eastern conti- 
nent, North or South America? n-a. — In what direction 
from South America is North America ? 


* A. de Humboldt. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


43 




Jiortli America. 



North American Indians . 

Q. What is the extent of North America ? 

A. It extends from the Isthmus of Darien to 
the Arctic Ocean ; being 4,500 miles in length, 
and on an average 2,500 in breadth ; containing 

about 8,000,000 square miles. 

Q. Whon and by whom was the eastern part of North 
America discovered ? 

A. In 1497, by John Cabot and his son Se- 
bastian Cabot, in the service of Henry VII. 
King of England. 

Q. What is known respecting the northern part? 

A. The northern part of North America has 
been but partially explored, and therefore is in 
a great measure unknown. 

[Within a few years past, several attempts have been 
made, to find a north-west passage ; all of which have been 
unsuccessful. Capt. Parry having entered Barrow’s strait, 
sailed to the 106° W. longitude, where he discovered an isl- 
and which he named Melville, but was unable to proceed 
further on account of ice. Several attempts have been made 
to explore this region by land, but none have succeeded.] 




44 


NORTH AMERICA 


Q. What can you say of the climate of N. America? 

A. The Climate is various ; the part lying 
north of latitude 50°, is a cold, barren and deso- 
late region. The part between 30° and 50° is 
subject to extremes of heat and cold. South of 
latitude 30°, the climate is warm, producing tro- 
pical fruits in abundance. 

► Q. Who inhabit the northern and western parts of North 
America ? 

A. Various Indian tribes, among whom the 
whites have erected trading houses for the pur- 
pose of procuring furs and skins. 

Q. What is the character of the N. American Indians^ 3- 

A. They are of a copper complexion, tall, 
straight, and capable of enduring great fatigue. 
They are faithful and generous to their friends, 
but cruel and implacable to their enemies. Their 
principal employment is hunting, fishing and war. 

Q. What is the probable population of N. America ? 

A. It is supposed to be about 20,000,000. 

Q. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude does 
N. America lie ? 

A. Between 7|° and 85° N. latitude, and be- 
tween 55° and 170Q W. longitude. 


MAP OF NORTH AMERICA. 

How is North America bounded ? 

British America ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
U. S. and Ter. ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Mexico ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

Guatimala ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

Russian Possessions ? 


RIVERS. 

What is a River ? 

Where does Mackenzie’s River rise, in* what diree- 


NORTH AMERICA. 


45 


tion does it run, and where does it empty ? Copper- 
mine ? Peace ? Elk ? Slave ? *Saschaschawan ? 
Churchill ? Nelson ? Severn ? Albany ? Moose ? 
Utawas ? St. Lawrence ? Columbia ? Clarke’s ? 
Lewis’ ? Multnomah ? Colorado ? fGila ? Rio 
Bravo, or Del Norte ? St. Juan ? Mississippi ? Mis- 
souri ? Yellowstone? Arkansas ? Red River? 


CAPES. 

What is a Cape ? 

Where is Cape Farewell ? 

Where is Cape St. Lewis ? 

Where is Cape Sable ? 

Where is Icy Cape ? 

Where is Cape Prince of Wales ? 
Where is Cape St. Lucas ? 

Where is Cape St. Antonio ? 


ISLANDS. 

What is an Island ? Where is Melville Island ? 
Sabine ? Disco ? Iceland ? Southampton ? Mans- 
field ? James ? Anticosti ? Cape Breton ? St. 
John’s? Newfoundland? Sable? Bermudas/ 
Bahamas ? Greater Antilles, viz. Cuba, Hayti, 
Jamaica, Porto Rico? — Caribbean Islands, viz. 
Santa Cruz, Antigua, Guadaloupe, Dominica, Marti- 
nico, St. Lucia, Barbadoes, Grenada, Tobago, Trini- 
dad ? — Little Antilles, viz., Curazoa, Buen Aire, 
Orchilla, Tortuga, Margaritta ? Oruba ? King 
George’s? Prince of Wales ? Queen Charlotte’s ?- 
Vancouver’s or Nootka Island ? 

STRAITS. 

What is a Strait ? 

Where is Davis’ Strait ? 

Where is Hudson’s Strait ? 

Where is Cumberland’s Strait ? 


* Sas-ka-shaw'an. 


t Ge'-la. 


46 


NORTH AMERICA. 


I 


Where is the Strait of *Bellisle ? 
Where is Barrows’ Strait ? 
Where is Bhering’s Strait ? 


BAYS. 

What is a Bay ? 

Where is Baffin’s Bay ? 

Where is Hudson’s Bay 1 
Where is Repulse Bay ? 

Where is James’ Bay ? 

Where is the Bay of Fundy ? 
Where is *Amatique Bay 1 
Where is the Bay of Honduras ? 
Where is the Bay of Campeachy 1 


GULFS. 

What is a Gulf? 

Where is the Gulf of St. Lawrence ? 
Where is the Gulf of Mexico ? 
Where is the Gulf of California ? 


SOUNDS. 

What is a Sound ? 

Where is Prince William’s Sound ? 
Where is Lancaster Sound ? 
Where is Smith’s Sound ? 

Where is Whale Sound ? 


PENINSULAS. 

What is a Peninsula ? 

Where is the Peninsula of Greenland 1 
Where is the Peninsula of Nova Scotia ? 
Where is the Peninsula of Florida ? 
Where is the Peninsula of Yucatan ? 
Where is the Peninsula of California ? 
Where is the Peninsula of Alaska ? 


* Bel-ile'. 


t Am-a-teek'. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


47 


MOUNTAINS. 

What is a Mountain ? What is a Volcano ? 
Where are the Allegany Mountains ? 
Where are the Cordilleras Mountains ? 
Where are the Rocky Mountains 7 
Where is Horn Mountain ? 

Where is Mount Elias ? 

Where are the Arctic Highlands 7 
Where is Popocatapetl ? 


LAKES. 

What is a Lake ? 

Where is Lake Superior ? 

Where is the Lake of the Woods 7 
Where is Lake Winnipeg ? 

Where is the Lake of the Hills 7 
Where is Slave Lake ? 

Where is Lake *Chapala ? 

Where is Lake *Nicaragua ? 

What are the Divisions of North America ? 
Which is the most northern Division ? 
Which is the middle Division ? 

Which is the south-western Division ? 
Which is the southern Division ? 

Which is the most north-western Division ? 


J RUSSIAN POSSESSIONS. 

The Russian Possessions extend from the Ter- 
ritory of the V. States to the Arctic Ocean, em- 
bracing the region west of the Rocky mountains 
and Mackenzie’s river. They are inhabited by 
about 1000 Whites, and 50,000 Indians, who are 
subject to Russia. 

The soil produces near the coast a few pines 


* Sha-pa-la. 


t Nic-ur-aw'gua. 


\ Ru-shian. 


48 


NORTH AMERICA. 


and birch ; in the interior the land rises into high 
mountains, covered with perpetual snow. 

* The whole region presents a most gloomy and 
savage appearance. The principal employment 
of the inhabitants is hunting and fishing. 

Questions . — What Straits separate the Russian Posses- 
sions from Asia? What Cape east of Bhering’s Straits? 
What Cape in Asia opposite to Cape Prince of Wales ? e. 
What two Capes N. E. of Bliering’s Straits ? l. i. — W hat 
Peninsula in the S. W. part of the Russian Possessions? 
What River E. of Alaska ? c. — What Inlet is the entrance to 
Cook’s River? What Sound E. of Cook’s river? What 
mountain on the coast S. E. of Prince William’s Sound? e. 
What is the height of Mt. Elias ? (See map of the 
World.) How is the coast divided between Mount Elias and 
the U. S. Territory? n.-n. and n. c. — Where is the Russian 
Settlement of Portlock harbor ? What settlement on Prince 
of Wales isle? Sitka. 

greenlaIvlk 



White Bear. ‘ 

Greenland is one of the coldest and most bar- 
ren countries on the globe, exhibiting but little 
except rocks and mountains of ice and snow. It 
belongs to Denmark, and is principally valuable 
for the whale fishery on its coast. 




NORTH AMERICA. 


49 


The Moravians have established several mis- 
sionary stations here, and have converted many 
of the natives to Christianity. 

Formerly Greenland was supposed to be a part 
of North America ; but the late discoveries ren- 
der it probable, that it is a vast island. 

The principal animal in Greenland, is the white 
bear , which is extremely fierce and voracious, and 
attacks indiscriminately both man and beast. 

The Greenlanders are small of stature, and 
are a weak, indolent, and superstitious race. 
The population is supposed to be 20,000. 

What Cape south of Greenland ? f. — What Missionary 
station near C. Farewell ? — l. — What settlement north-west 
)f Lichtenau ? j. — What 4 settlements on the western coast 
Df Greenland? g. h. u. it. — Which is the most northern set- 
tlement ? u. — What 3 Sounds at the northern extremity of 
Baffin’s Bay ? s. w. j. — What Island on the western coast of 
Greenland ? d. — [A vast mine of sea-coal has been discov- 
ered in the island of Disco.] What settlement on Disco 
Isle ? g. — Where is Icy Peak ? Where are the Arctic High- 
lands ? What Island east of Greenland ? What Town on it ? 
What Mountain ? What Bay and Straits separate Green- 
land from North America ? 

BRITISH AMERICA. 

British America extends from Davis' Straits, 
and the Atlantic on the east, to the Rocky moun- 
tains on the west ; and from the Arctic ocean on 
the north, to the United States on the south. 

It is divided into New 7 Britain, Upper and 
Lower Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Sco- 
tia ; besides Newfoundland, and several islands 
in the gulf of St. Lawrence. 

How is British America bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

5 


50 


NORTH AMERICA. 


NEW BRITAIN. 



Islands of Ice. 

New Britain is a cold, barren, and desolate region. 

It includes Labrador, East Main and New 
Wales, and is inhabited by various tribes of In- 
dians, amongst whom the English have erected 
forts and trading houses , for the purpose of pro- 
curing /wr.5 and skins. 

Wild animals abound in these regions ; the 
principal of which are moose , deer , otters , bears , 
beavers , martins , foxes , hares , fyc. During the 
short summer, the numerous lakes and rivers are 
covered with sea fowl, which come from the south. 

The method of travelling in New Britain, is in 
canoes of birch bark , which are so light that they 
can easily be conveyed from one stream to an- 
other. In these, the Fur Traders travel thou- 
sands of miles, with their furs and skins. 

The ^Esquimaux Indians inhabit the coast, 
and are small, dull, and extremely filthy, living 
principally on seals and whales. The fKniste- 
neaux inhabit the interior, and are little known. 


* Es'ke-mo. 


t Nis-te-no. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


51 


What Bay divides New Britain ? h. — W hat Bay north of 
Hudson’s Bay ? R. — What Bay south of it ? j.— What 2 Isl- 
ands in Hudson’s Bay ? s. m. — What 4 Rivers empty into 
Hudson’s Bay? w. c. n. s. — What three Rivers empty into 
James’ Bay ? a. m. e-m.— -What Inlet west of Hudson’s Bay ? 
p. — W hat two Straits lead into Hudson’s Bay ? What two 
Rivers empty into the Arctic Ocean? c. m. — Which are the 
three largest lakes in New Britain ? w. a. s. — What Indians 
inhabit the northern part of N. Britain ? e. — W hat Indians 
inhabit the coast of Labrador? e. — What Indians in the in*- 
teriour ? k. — W hat three Missionary stations on the coast of 
Labrador? o. n. h. — W hat Forts near Hudson’s and James’ 
Bays ? c. a. s. m. — What Strait west of Baffin’s bay ? b. — 
What Sound at the entrance of Barrow’s Strait? l. — What 
name is applied to the Islands north of Barrow’s Strait ? n-g. 
Which is the most western of these Islands? m. — How will 
you sail from Melville Island to York, in Upper Canada ? 


UPPER CANADA. 

Upper Canada is mostly a level province, and 
has generally a fertile soil, and a cold but healthy 
climate. 

The settlements are principally in the southern 
part ; the interiour and northern part is still a 
wilderness, and is inhabited only by Indians. 

The principal articles of export, are wheat, 
maize, fish , furs, potashes, and lumber . Popula- 
tion about 150,000. 

Chief Towns . — York is finely situated on York bay, and 
has a beautiful and commodious harbour. It is regularly laid 
out, and contains a number of elegant buildings. Population 
about 4,000. 

Kingston occupies the site of Fort Frontenac, and is the 
most important and flourishing town of Upper Canada. It 
has an excellent harbour, and is the principal station for the 
British shipping on lake Ontario. Pop. 3,000. 

Questions on the Map of the United Stales. 

What six Lakes lie between Upper Canada and the United 
States? w. s. h. c. e. o. — What small Lake between lake 
Superior and lake of the Woods? r. — What river connects 
i lake Superior to lake Huron ? What Islands in Lake Huron ? 


52 


NORTH AMERICA. 


m. — What Bay on the eastern part of lake Huron ? g.-— W hat 
two Lakes empty into Georgian bay ? n. s. — What River 
connects lake Huron to lake St. Clair ? St. c. — What River 
empties into lake St. Clair, t. — What town is situated on 
the Thames ? l. — W hat River conects lake St. Clair to lake 
Erie ? d. — What River empties into the eastern part of lake 
Erie ? g. — What River connects lake Erie to lake Ontario ? 
Niagara river. — What Falls in Niagara river ? What two 
Towns on lake Ontario ? k. y. — What River forms the boun- 
dary between Upper and Lower Canada ? u. — What Indians 
between lake Ontario and lake Huron ? s. — Which is the 
Capital of Upper Canada ? y. — In what direction from York 
is the Town in which you reside? How will you sail from 
York to Quebec, and what large city will you pass ? m. 

LOWER CANADA. 

Lower Canada was settled in 1608 bv the 
French, at Quebec ; in whose possession it re- 
mained until 1759, when it was taken by the Eng- 
lish, under Gen. Wolfe, in whose power it still 
continues. 

Lower Canada is mostly an uneven and moun- 
tainous province, but has generally a fertile soil, 
especially in the vallies. A large part of it is 
still a wilderness, inhabited by Indians. 

The principal settlements are in the vale of the 
St. Lawrence. The greater part of the French 
population is confined to the northern bank of 
the St. Lawrence, between Montreal and Quebec. 

The extremes of heat and cold are excessive. 
Winter usually commences in November, and 
generally lasts till April. The spring is usually 
six weeks earlier at Montreal than at Quebec. 

The principal articles of export are fish, furs, 
potashes and lumber. 

The falls of Montmorency, 9 miles below Quebec, 
are the greatest curiosity in Lower Canada. The riv- 
er pours over a precipice to the astonishing depth of 


NORTH AMERICA. 


53 


246 feet, exhibiting a scene of wonderful beauty 
and grandeur. 

Chief Towns. — Quebec is the capital not only of Lower 
Canada, but of all British America. It is situated on the 
river St. Lawrence, 370 miles from the ocean. It is divided 
into two parts, the Upper and Lower Town, and is strongly 
defended both by nature and art. Pop. 24,000. 

Montreal is situated on an island of the same name, in the 
river St. Lawrence, 180 miles above Quebec, and 200 below 
lake Ontario. It has an extensive commerce, principally in 
furs ; and is the great mart of the trade that is carried on be- 
tween the United States and Canada. Pop. 25,000. 

Questions on the Map of the United Stales. 

What two Rivers form the boundary line between Upper 
and Lower Canada ? a. u. — What River connects lake Cham- 
plain to the river St. Lawrence? s. — What River connects 
lake Memphremagog and lake St. Francis to the river St. 
Lawrence? St. f. — What are the two other principal Rivers 
emptying into the St. Lawrence ? St. m. and s. — What is the 
length ofthe St. Lawrence? [It will be remembered that the 
figures on rivers denote their length in hundreds of miles, as 
the river St. Lawrence is marked 7J, which signifies that the 
river is 750 miles in length.] In what direction from Quebec 
is Boston? Montreal? Eastport ? In what direction from 
Quebec is this Town, in which we now are ? How will you 
sail from Quebec to St. Johns in New Brunswick ? 

NEW BRUNSWICK. 

New Brunswick extends from Maine to the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, containing about 30,000 
square miles, and 100,000 inhabitants. 

The climate, like that of Lower Canada, is 
subject to great extremes of heat and cold, but is 
generally healthy. It is mostly a level province 
and has a fertile soil, especially on the rivers. 

The principal articles of export, are fish and 
timber . 

Chief Towns. — Fredericktox, the capitahof New Bruns- 
wick, is situated on the river St. Johns, 80 miles fiom itf 

5* 


54 


NORTH AMERICA. 


mouth, at the head of sloop navigation. It is regularly laid 
out, and contains a number of elegant buildings. Pop. 600. 

St. Johns, situated on the Paver St. Johns, 3 miles from its 
mouth, is the largest and most flourishing town in the prov- 
ince. It has a good harbour and an extensive commerce. 
Pop. 10,000. 

What Bay between New Brunswick and Nova Scotia? f. 
What is the principal River ? St. .j — What River forms part 
of the boundary between Maine and New Brunswick ? St. 
c. — How will you sail from St. Johns to Halifax ? 


NOVA SCOTIA. 

Nova Scotia is a narrow peninsula, 300 miles 
in length, containing about 15,000 square miles, 
and 100,000 inhabitants. 

it has a cold, damp climate, and in most parts, 
a thin and unproductive soil. The principal ex- 
ports are fish , lumber , and plaster of Paris . 

Chief Towns . — Halifax, the capital, is situated on Che- 
bucto bay, near the centre of the province. It has a spacious 
and commodious harbour, and is the principal naval station 
of G. Britain in North America. Pop. 15,000. 

Liverpool and Annapolis are places of considerable trade. 

What Cape south of Nova Scotia ? What Island east of 
Nova Scotia? s. — What Bay between Nova Scotia and Ncw- 
Brunswick ? f. — For what is it remarkable? A. For its 
tides, which rise from 40 to 60 feet, and are so rapid that an- 
imals are often overtaken and drowned. What two Islands 
N. E. of Nova Scotia? St. j. and c-b. What Town on 
Cape * Breton ? l. 

NEWFOUNDLAND. 

Newfoundland is celebrated for the cod fisher- 
ies on its coast, which are the most valuable of 
any on the globe. 

It is generally a rough and barren island ; with 
• a cold, damp climate, occasioned by perpetual 
fogs. 


* Bro-toon', 


NOUTII AMERICA. 


Towns . — St. Johns is situated on the south-east coast, 
and contains about 15,000 inhabitants. 

Placentia and Bonavista are the other principal towns. 

What Strait separates Newfoundland from Labrador ? 
What Cape south of Newfoundland? m. — What Bank east 
of Newfoundland ? How long is the Grand Bank ? In 
what direction from Newfoundland are the Bermuda Isl- 
ands ? Iceland ? Cuba ? 

BERMUDA ISLANDS. 

The Bermudas consist of about 400 small Isl- 
ands, most of which are barren and uninhabited. 

They have a temperate and healthy climate, 
but subject to frequent storms. Pop. i0,000. 

In what direction from the Bermudas is Cuba ? Trinidad ? 
Anticosti ? Hayti, or St. Domingo ? Iceland ? 

UNITED STATES. 

Q. What can you say of the United States ? 

A. The United States are the most interesting 
and important division of the western continent ; 
and are distinguished for the excellency of their 
government, the rapid increase of the popula- 
tion, and for the intelligence, industry, and en- 
terprise of the inhabitants. 

Q. What is the extent of the United States ? 

A. The United States are 3,000 miles in 
length from east to west ; and 1,700 in breadth ; 
containing about 2,000,000 square miles, and 
12,000,000 inhabitants. 

Q. By whom were the United States settled ? 

A. By emigrants from various nations of Eu- 
rope, but principally by colonies from Great 
Britain, to which Government thev remained in 
subjection, till July 4th, 1776, when they declar- 
ed themselves free and independent ; and in 1788, 
they adopted the present constitution, or system 
of government. 


56 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Q. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude do 
the United States lie ? 

A. Between 25° and 49® N. lat. and between 
67° and 125° W. longitude. 

Q. What can you say of the commerce ? 

A. The commerce of the United States is ve- 
ry extensive, and is superior to that of any na- 
tion, except Great Britain. 

Q. What are the principal articles of export ? 

A. Cotton, tobacco, wheat, flour, rice, fish, 
ashes, lumber, and naval stores. 

Q. What are the chief articles of import ? 

A. They consist principally of woollens, cot- 
tons, linens, silks, teas, coffee, sugar, spirits, spi- 
ces, and wines. 

Q. What is the government of the United States ? 

A. The government of the United States is a federal re- 
public ; formed by the union of the several states, for the 
purpose of a mutual safety and defence, under the general 
power of a Congress. 

[Each state is independent, with distinct laws for itself, 
and has the exclusive control of all local concerns ; but the 
defence of the country, the regulation of commerce, and all 
the general interests of the confederacy, are committed by the 
constitution of the United States to a general government.] 

Q. By whom are the laws of the United States made? 

A. By a Congress which consists of a Senate and a House 
of Representatives, and is termed the legislative power. 

Q,. By whom are the laws executed ? 

A. By a President ; who is assisted by the Secretary of 
State, the Secretary of War, of the Navy, and of the Treas- 
ury, and is called the executive power. 

Q. For what length of time, and in what manner is th( 
President chosen ? 

A. He is chosen for four years, by delegates elected foi 
this purpose by the people ; and equal in number for eacl 
state, to the members it sends to Congress. 

The Vice President is chosen in the same manner, and fo 
the same length of lime. 

The Senate consists of two members from each state, cho/ 
en bv the legislatures thereof for six years. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


57 


The Representatives are chosen for two years, by the peo- 
ple of each state, according to their population : 40,000 in- 
habitants being entitled to one Representative. 

The Federal Judiciary is the power which explains and ap- 
plies the laws, and is independent of the legislature. It con- 
sists of a supreme court held at Washington, and a district 
court in each state. The Judges of the supreme court of the 
United States, and the inferior officers of government are 
appointed by the President with the approbation of the Sen- 
ate. 

[The following *Tablc exhibits the salaries of some of the 
principal officers of the general government. 


President - §25,000 

Vice President - 5,000 

Secretary of State - 6,000 

Secretary of the Treasury - - 6,000 

Secretary of War - 6,000 

Secretary of the Navy - - 6,000 

Comptroller - , - - 3,500 

Auditor - 3,000 

Treasurer - 3,000 

Postmaster General - 6,000 


Chief Justice of Supreme Court 5,000] 

Q. What can you say of the inland navigation ? 

A. Cy means of the vast number of navigable rivers and 
lakes, and the numerous canals, the United States possess 
advantages for inland navigation, superior to those of any 
other nation, of equal extent, on the globe. 

* This, and the following Tables, are not inserted for the 
purpose of being committed to memory, but as Tables of re- 
ference, in using the present work. 


NORTH AMERICA 


58 


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NORTH AMERICA. 


59 


LAKES. 

[The following table exhibits the length, average breadth, 
depth, and the height of the surface above the tide wafers, of 
some pf the principal Lakes in the United States. 

Elevation 
above the 


Lakes . 


Superior 

Huron 

Michigan 

Erie 

Ontario 

Green Bay 

L. of the Woods 

Champlain 

St. Clair 


<"& 

& 3 

Co 


480 

250 

400 

270 

180 

105 

70 

128 

90 cir * 


05 

Os 


<s>. 


109 

100 

50 

60 

40 

20 

40 

7 


^ a. 

(V-J- 

a *5$ 


900 

900 


200 

500 


tide water 


1048 ft. 
595 
595 
565 
218 
595 


Q. What is the state of education in the U. States ? 

A. The United States are not so much distinguished for 
eminence in literature and science, as for the general diffusion 
of knowledge. There are numerous seminaries of learning 
throughout the country, and the means of acquiring a good 
common education is extended to all classes of society. 

COLLEGES IN THE UNITED STATES. 


Names. 

Where located. 

Inc. 

Lib. t 

*Bowdoin college 

Brunswick, Me. 

1795 

6000 

Waterville c 

Waterville, Me. 

1818 

2000 

^Dartmouth c 

Hanover, N. H. 

1769 

12000 

* Vermont university 

Burlington, Ver. 

1791 

1000 

*Middlebury c 

Middlebury, Ver. 

1800 

2000 

* Harvard u 

Cambridge, Mass. 

1638 

6000 

William’s c 

Williamstown, Mass. 

1793 

1500 

Amherst c 

Amherst, Mass. 

1820 

1300 

Browns u 

Providence, R. I. 

1764 

7500 

*Yale c 

New Haven, Ct. 

1700 

2000 

Washington c 

Hartford, Ct. 

1823 

7000 

Union c 

Schenectady, JN. Y. 

1784 

9000 

Hamilton c 

Clinton, N . Y. 

1812 

2000 

Columbia c 

New- York City, 

1754 

4000 

Washington c 

• -'■T 1 ” 

Staten Island, N. Y. 

1817 

3000 


+ Including those belonging to the Students. 


60 


NORTH AMERICA 


Names . 

Where loeated. 

Inc, 

Lib. 

Geneva c 

Geneva, N. Y. 

1824 


New Jersey c 

Princeton, N. J. 

1738 

8000 

Rutgers c 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

1770 


Pennsylvania u 

Philadelphia, Penn. 

1755 

9000 

Dickinson c 

Carlisle, Pa. 

1783 

3000 

Jefferson c 

Cannonsburg, Fa. 

1801 

1000 

Washington c 

Washington, Pa. 

1802 


Allegan}^ c 

Meadville, Pa. 

1817 

1000 

Maryland u 

Baltimore, Md. 

1812 


St. Mary’s c 

Baltimore, Md. 

1804 

10000 

Baltimore c 

Baltimore, Md. 

1807 


St. John’s c 

Annapolis, Md. 

1784 


Georgetown c 

Georgetown, D. C. 

1784 

7000 

Columbian c 

Washington City. 

1821 


William and Mary’s c 

Wiljiamsburg, Va. 

1691 

4000 

Hampden Sidney c 

Prince Edwards, Va. 

1774 

1500 

Washington c 

Lexington, Va. 

1801 

2000 

Virginia u 

Charlottesville, Va. 

1817 

1800 

North Carolina u 

Chapel Hill, N. C. 

1789 


South Carolina c 

Columbia, S. C. 

1801 

5G00 

Charleston c. 

Charleston, S. C. 

1785 


Beaufort c 

Beaufort, S. C. 

1795 


Franklin c 

Athens, Geo. 

1785 

2000 

Jefferson c 

Washington, Mississippi. 

1802 


New Orleans c 

New Orleans, Louis. 

1805 


Greenville c 

Greenville, Tenn. 

1794 


Washington c 

Washington co. Tenn. 

1794 

2000 

Knoxville c 

Knoxville, Tenn. 

1821 

3000 

^Cumberland c 

Nashville, Tenn. 

1825 

2O00 

* Transylvanian 

Lexington, Ky. 

1798 

6000 

Centre c 

Danville, Ky. 

1819 


Kenyon c 

Knox county, Ohio. 

1823 


Ohio u 

Athens, Ohio. 

1801 


* Cincinnati c 

Cincinnati, Ohio . 

1819 


Miami u 

Oxford, Ohio. 

1809 


*Vincennes c 

Vincennes, Ind. 

1806 


St. Louis c 

St. Louis, Missouri. 

1821 



* Has a Medical School connected with it. 

^Cumberland college was incorporated in 1806, but was 
not fully organized as a college till 1825. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Cl 


Q. What is the Religion? 

A. Every individual by the Constitution of the United 
States is left to the free enjoyment of his own religion. 
The inhabitants are divided into a great variety of sects, the 
principal of which, are Congregationalists, Presbyterians, 
Episcopalians, Baptists, Methodists, German Lutherans, 
Unitarians and Quakers. 

TPIEOLOGICAL INSTITUTIONS. 

The following Table exhibits the principal Theological In- 
stitutions in the United States. 


Denominations. 

Places. 

Students. 

Congregational 

Bangor, Me. 

34 

Congregational 

Andover, Mass. 

140 

* Congregational 

New Haven, Con. 

44 

Dutch Reformed 

New Brunswick, N. J. 

25 

Presbyterian 

Auburn, N. Y. 

24 

Presbyterian 

Princeton, N. J. 

120 

Baptist 

Newton, Mass. 

— 

^Baptist 

W aterville, 

36 

^Baptist 

Washington, D. C. 

34 

Baptist 

Hamilton, N. Y. 

46 

Baptist 

Rock Spring, 11. 

24 

Lutheran 

Hartwick, N. Y. 

12 

Episcopal 

New York City. 

22 

* Unitarian 

Cambridge. 

40 


SETTLEiWENTS. 


The following Table exhibits the settlements of the difier- 
ent States, the place first settled ; and by what nation ; like- 
wise the square miles of each State, taken from the best ge- 
ographic tables. The first thirteen States are those which 
united in declaring their independence; the remainder are 
placed in the order in which they were admitted into the 
Union. 

— — — — — - — — — 

^Connected with the College in that place. 

6 


62 


NORTH AMERICA 


States, 

4 

sq.mil 

settl. 

Nation, 

Place. 

1. Virginia 

64000 

1607 

English 

Jamestown. 

2. New York 

46000 

1614 

Dutch 

Albany. 

3. Massachusetts 

7500 

1620 

English 

Plymouth. 

4. N. Hampshire 

9500 

1623 

English 

Dover. 

5. New Jersey 

8300 

1624 

Danes 

Bergen. 

6. Delaware 

2100 

1627 

Swedes & Finns 

C. Henlopen. 

7. Connecticut 

4760 

1633 

English 

Windsor. 

8. Maryland 

14000 

1634 

English 

St. Mary’s. 

9. Rhode Island 

1360 

1636 

R. Williams 

Providence. 

10. N. Carolina* 

48000 

1650 

English 

Albemarle. 

11. S. Carolina 

24000 

1650 

English 

Albemarle. 

12. Pennsylvania 

44000 

1682 

Wm. Penn 

Philadelphia. 

13. Georgia 

60000 

1733 

English 

Savannah. 

Vermont 

10200 

1749 

English 

Bennington 

Kentucky 

42000 

1775 

Col. D. Boon 

Lexington. 

Tennessee 

40000 

1765 

English 

Nashville, 

Ohio 

39000 

1788 

English 

Marietta. 

Louisiana 

48000 

1699 

F rench 

Ibberville. 

Indiana 

36000 

1730 

French 

Vincennes. 

Mississippi 

45000 

1716 

French 

Natchez. 

Illinois 

52000 

1749 

French 

Kaskaskia. 

Alabama 

44000 

1783 

French 

Mobile. 

Maine 

32000 

1630 

English 

York. 

Missouri 

60000 

1663 

French 

St. Genevieve. 

Michigan 

40000 

1670 

French 

Detroit. 

Arkansaw 

100,000 

1685 

French 

Arkansas. 

Florida 

50000 

1665 

Spanish 

St. Augustine. 


* North and South Carolina were united under one gov- 
ernment until 1729, when they were separated. 


Questions . — Which is the oldest settled State ? 

When, where, and by whom was Virginia settled ? 

What State was settled next ? By whom ? At what place 
was it settled ? When, where, and by whom, was Massachu- 
setts settled ? New Hampshire ? New Jersey? Delaware 
&c. How many states united in declaring their indepen- 
dence ? What are their names'* How many square miles 
has Virginia ? 


NORTH AMERICA 


03 


PRESIDENTS OF 

1. * George Washington 

2. t.lohn Adams 

3. *Thomas Jefferson 

4. *James Madison 

5. *James Monroe 

6. tJohn Q. Adams 

7. ^Andrew Jackson 


THE UNITED 
from 1789 to 
from 1797 to 
from 1801 to 
from 1809 to 
from 1817 to 
from 1825 to 
from 1829 to 


STATES. 
1797 8 years. 
1801 4 years. 
1809 8 years. 
1817 8 years. 
1825 8 years. 
1829 4 years. 
years. 


*A native of Virginia. +A native of Massachusetts. 
JA native of S. Carolina. 


MAP OF THE UNITED STATES. 

How are the United States bounded ? Capital ? 
Eastern , or New England States. 

1. Maine? Capital? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

2. N. Hamp. ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

3. Vermont ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

4. Massachus. ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

5. R. Island ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

6. Connecticut ? Capitals ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 


1. New York ? 

2. New Jersey ? 

3. Pennsylvania? 

4. Delaware ? 

1. Maryland ? 

2. Virginia ? 

3. N. Carolina ? 

4. S. Carolina ? 

5. Georgia ? 

6. Alabama ? 
Florida ? 

1 . Louisiana ? 

2. Mississippi ? 

3. Tennessee ? 

4. Missouri ? 


Middle States. 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Southern States. 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
TFes/em States. 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 
Capital ? Chief 


Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 

Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 

Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 
Towns ? 


Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 

Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 

Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 


64 


NORTH AMERICA. 


5. Kentucky ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers 1 

6. Illinois ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

7. Indiana ? Capital ? Chief Towns? Rivers ? 

8. Ohio ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 

Territories . 

1. Michigan Territory ? Capital ? 


2. Northwest Territory ? 

3. Arkansas Territory ? 

4. Florida Territory ? 

6. Missouri Territory? 

6. Oregon Territory ? 


Capital ? 
Capital ? 


Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 


Rivers . 

Where does the Columbia River rise, in what di- 
rection does it run, and where does it empty? 
Clarke’s ? Lewis ? Multnomah ? Yellowstone ? 
Platte ? Osage ? St. Peter’s ? Des Moines ? 
Missouri ? Arkansas ? Red ? Sabine ? Missis- 
sippi ? Yazoo? Black? Pearl? Pascagoula? 
Tombigbee ? Perdido ? Alabama ? Chatahoochee ? 
Flint ? Suwanee ? St. John’s ? St. Mary’s ? Sa- 
tilla ? Altamaha ? Ogeechee ? Savannah ? Cam- 
bahee ? Edisto ? Santee ? Great and Little Pedee ? 
Cape Fear ? Neuse ? Pamlico ? Roanoke ? Cho- 
wan ? James ? York ? Rappahannoc ? Shenan- 
doah ? Potomac ? Monongahela ? Little Kanha- 
wa ? Great Kanhawa ? Tennessee ? Cumber- 
land ? Green ? Salt ? Kentucky ? Licking ? 
Big Sandy ? Ohio ? Muskinghum ? Sciota ? Mi- 
ami ? Maumee? Sandusky? Wabash? Kaskas- 
kia ? Rock? Illinois? Wisconsin? Chippeway? 
Fox ? St. Joseph’s ? Alleghany ? Genesee ? Sus- 
quehanna ? Delaware ? Mohawk ? Hudson ? 
Black ? Housatonic ? Thames ? Connecticut ? Mer- 
rimack ? Piscataqua ? Saco ? Androscoggin ? Kenne- 
bec ? Penobscot ? St. Croix ? St. John’s River ? 


What is the length of the Missouri ? — Mississippi ? — Ar- 
kansas l — Red ? Columbia ? — Konzas ? White ? — Tennes- 


NORTH AMERICA. 


65 


see ? Yellowstone ? — Ohio ? — Lewis ? Clark ? — Big Horn ? — 
St. Lawrence? — Potomac? Osage? Cumberland? Mult- 
nomah ? — James ? — VV abash ? Neuse ? St. Francis ?-Platte ? 
St. Peters? Tombigbee ? Alabama? Savannah? San- 
tee? Gr. Pedee? Susquehanna? — Connecticut? Alle- 
gany ? Oconee ? Gr. Kanhawa ? OakmuJgee ? Des 
Moines? Wisconsin? Illinois? — St. John’s Pludson ? 

Roanoke? Cape Fear ? North Fork ? South Fork? — St. 
John’s? Red? Ohatahoochee ? Monongahela ? Dela- 
ware ? — Shenandoah ? Ogeechee ? Penobscot ? Kenne- 

beck ? Mcrrimac? Cambahee? Flint? Pearl? Yazoo? 
Sabine? Rock? Miami ? Licking? — Black? Edisto? 
Mohawk? Androscoggin? Saco? Gennesee ? Sciota ? 
Rappahannock ? Pascagoula ? — Black ? — Maumee ? — Al- 

tamaha ? St. Mary's ? Satilla? Sandusky? — St.Clair? — 
Niagara? — Detroit River? 

Lakes. 

Where is Lake Michigan ? 

Where is Lake Champlain ? 

Where is Lake George ? 

Where are Oneida, Seneca and Cayuga Lakes ? 
A. In the interior of New-York. 

Where is Lake Memphremagog ? 

Where is Moosehead Lake ? 

Where is Lake Umbagog ? 

Where is *Winnipiseoge Lake ? 

Sounds. 

Where is Long Island Sound ? 

Where is Albemarle Sound ? 

Where is Pamlico Sound ? 

Bays. 

Where is Mobile Bay 1 
Where is Chesapeake Bay ? 

Where is Delaware Bay ? 

Where is Narraganset Bay ? 

Where is Buzzard’s Bay ? 

Where is Massachusetts Bay ? 

Where is Casco Bay ? 

* Win-ne-pe-so'g-e. 

6 * 


66 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Where is Penobscot Bay ? 

Where is the Bay of Fundy ? 

Where is Georgian Bay ? 

Where is Green Bay ? 

Capes* 

Where is Cape Sable ? 

Where is Cape Ann ? 

Where is Cape Cod ? 

Where is Cape Malabar ? 

Where is Montauk Point ? 

Where is Sandy Hook ? 

Where are Cape May and Cape Henlopen ? 
Where are Cape Charles and Cape Henry? 
Where are Cape Hatteras, Cape Lookout, and 
Cape Fear ? 

Where are Cape Canaveral and Cape Florida ? 
Where is Cape Sable ? 

Islands . 

Where are Nantucket and Martha’s Vineyard ? 
Where is Block Island 1 
Where is Gardner’s Island ? 

Where is Long Island ? 

Where is Sullivan’s Island ? 

Where are St. Catharine’s, St. Simon’s, and Cum- 
berland Islands ? 

Where are Talbot and Amelia Islands ? 

Skoals . 

Where are Muscle Shoals ? 

Where are Nantucket Shoals ? 

A. S. of Nantucket island. 

Mountains. 

What is the principal range of Mountains in the 
United States ? a. 

Through what states does the Allegany Moun- 
tains extend ? 

Where are the Ozark Mountains ? 

Where are the Cumberland Mountains ? 

Where are the Catskill Mountains ? A. In N. Y. 


NORTH AMERICA. 



Where are the Green Mountains ? A. in Ver. 
Where are the White Mountains ? A. in N. II. 
What Mountains between Missouri Territory, and 
Orregon Territory ? 

What is the length and height of the Rocky 
Mountains? Of the Allegany Mountains ? Of the 
Green Mountains ? How high are the White Moun- 
tains ? 

Which are the Eastern States ? 

Which are the Middle States ? 

Which are the Southern States ? 

Which are the Western States ? 


EASTERN, OR NEW ENGLAND STATES* 



Commerce. 

Which are the eastern or New England States ? Which 
State extends farthest north ? W hich extends farthest 
south 3 Which is the most eastern ? Which is the largest 
of the New England States ? Which is the smallest ? Which 
State has no sea coast ? Which three States are bounded 
north by Lower Canada? 


New England, embracing the six states east 
of the Hudson, is tl>e most thickly peopled and 
commercial section of the Union/ 


68 


NORTH AMERICA. 


The climate is various, and subject to great ex- 
tremes of heat and cold, but is remarkably healthy. 

Except the parts bordering on the coast, the 
Eastern States have generally an uneven surface. 

The two principal ranges of mountains are the 
White mountains, in New Hampshire, and Green 
mountains, in Vermont. Mount Washington, 
the most elevated summit of the White Moun- 
tains, is 6,634 feet high ; being the highest land 
in the United States. 

The soil is various ; on the rivers it is general- 
ly fertile ; but in most parts, it is better adapted 
to grazing than tillage. 

The most important productions are grass , 
■maize, rye, oats, barley, flax, and various kinds of 
fruit . 

The principal manufactures are cotton and 
woollen goods, hats, shoes, iron, and tin ware . 

The principal exports, in addition to those 
above mentioned, are timber, pot a nd pearl ashes 
and fish. 

New England is distinguished for its excellent 
system of education. Common Schools are es- 
tablished and supported by law, in every town, 
except in the State of Rhode Island ; and a per- 
son of mature vears can seldom be found, who 
?3 not able both to read and write. 

The people of New England are intelligent, 
moral, industrious, and enterprising. 

MAINE.* 

How is Maine bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

* This State was formerly united with Massachusetts, and 
was termed the District <f Maine, but in 1820 it was erected 
into an independent State and admitted into the Union. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


G9 


Maine is generally a cold, hilly, and unproduc- 
tive state, and is principally distinguished for its 
extensive coast, and numerous harbours. 

The population is mostly in the southern part, 
the northern being yet unsettled, and covered 
with extensive forests. 

The agriculture and manufactures of Maine 
are in a backward state ; but the commerce is 
very extensive ; and in the amount of its shipping, 
it is the fourth state in the Union. 

Chief Towns. — Portland is a well built and flourishing 
town, pleasantly situated on a peninsula in Casco bay. It 
has a safe and capacio-us harbour, and is noted for its exten- 
sive commerce. Pop. 12,000. 

Bath is a flourishing town, pleasantly situated on the Ken- 
nebec, 13 miles from its mouth. Except Portland, it is the 
largest and most commercial town in the state. Pop. 4,000. 

Map of the United States. — What seven rivers has Maine ? 
r. s. a. k. p. St. c. St. j. — What River forms part of the boun- 
dary between Maine and N. Hampshire ? A. Piscataqua ? 
What river forms part of the boundary between Maine and 
N. Brunswick ? St. c. — What town on Passamaquoddy Bay 
at the mouth of the river *St. Croix ? e. — What Town 

on Machias Bay, S. W. of Eastport ? m. — What is the 
length of the River St. Johns ? Penobscot ? Kennebeck ? 
How far is Portland from Boston ? Hartford ? Washington ? 
[See Table of distance.] 


t QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF NEW ENGLAND. 

What two large Bays on the coast of Maine ? c. p. — What 
nine Counties has Maine ? y. c. o. l. k. s. ii. p. and Wash- 
ington. [Washington county embraces the eastern part of 
Maine, extending from the Atlantic to Lower Canada.] 
What five Counties border on the Atlantic ? y. c. l. h. w. 
What four Counties border on Lower Canada ? o. s. p. w. 
What County in the interior ? k. — Which are the 2 ifShire 

*St. Croy. 

t Perhaps it would be well to omit the questions on the Map 
of New England, until the pupil reviews the work ; the teach- 
er can best determine. 

^Thetown where the Courts are held. 


70 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Towns of York county? y. a. — W hich is the Shire Town of 
Cumberland county ? p. — Which is the Shire town of Ox- 
ford county? p. — Of Lincoln county? w.— Of Kennebeck 
county? a. — Of Somerset county ? n. — Of Hancock coun- 
ty ? c. — Of Penobscot county ? b. — Of W ashington county ? 
A. Machias, situated on Machias bay. What 5 towns on 
Penobscot bay ? b. c. t. p. c. — W hat 4 Towns on Penobscot 
river ? f. o. b. b. — In what Lake does the Kennebeck river 
rise ? What 11 Towns on the Kennebeck ? m. a. n. f. w. v. 
a. h. g. w. b. — What river empties into the Kennebeck 18 
miles from its mouth ? a. In what Lake does the Androscoggin 
rise ? u. — What 4 Towns on the Androscoggin ? r. j. b. t. 
What 2 Towns on a branch of the Androscoggin ? p. h. 
What Town N. V/. of Rumford on a branch of the Andros- 
coggin ? a. — What 2 Towns on Casco bay ? r. n-y. — W hat 
4 Towns on the Saco ? s. h. c. s. — What 5 Towns in the 
south-western part of the state? w. a. k. w. y. — W hat 
Towns have not been mentioned ? d. p. f. j. — What Cape 
east of Casco bay ? What Point N. E. of this ? p. — Which 
are the two principal Lakes in Maine ? m. u. — W hat 2 Col- 
leges in Maine and where are the) located ? What Theolo- 
gical Institution in Maine ? b. — How many square miles has 
Maine? [See page 62.] When, where, and by whom, was 
Maine first settled ? How will you sail from Portland to 
Concord ? 


NEW HAMPSHIRE. 

How is New Hampshire bounded? W r hat is its Capital ? 

New Hampshire is a cold, mountainous, and 
healthy state ; and is chiefly distinguished for its 
agriculture, and manufactures. 

New Hampshire has but little commerce, hav- 
ing but 18 miles of coast, and only one seaport. 

Chief Towns. — Concord is a pleasant and flourishing 
town, and is the centre of trade for the northern part of the 
state. Pop. 3000. 

Portsmouth, the only sea-port of New-Hampshire, is a 
large, w r ell built, and flourishing town, pleasantly situated on 
the Piscataqua, 3 miles from its mouth. It has an excellent 
harbour, and is one of the naval stations of the United States. 
Pop. 8,500. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


71 

Dover is situated on the Cocheco river, 4 miles above its 
junction with the Piscataqua. It is the oldest town in the 
state, and is noted for its extensive manufactures. Pop. 
3,000. 

Map of the United States. — Which are the 3 principal riv- 
ers in New Hampshire ? c. m. p.— What River forms part 
of the boundary between N. Hampshire and Maine ? p. — 
What River forms the boundary between N. Hampshire and 
Vermont ? c. — What seaport has N. Hampshire, and how 
situated? What is the length of the Connecticut river? 
Merrrimac ? What Mountains in New Hampshire ? How 
high are the White Mountains ? [See Map of the World.] 


MAP OF NEW ENGLAND. 

What 8 Counties has New Hampshire ? c. s. h. r. m. s. g. 
c. — What 4 border on Vermont? c. s. g. c. — What 3 on 
Maine? c. s. r. — What 2 in the southern part? h. m. — 
Which is the Shire Town of Cheshire county ? k — W hich 
is the Shire Town of Hillsborough county ? a. — O f Rock- 
ingham 'county ? e. p. — Of Merrimack county ? c. — Of Straf- 
ford county ? r>. r. g. — Of Sullivan county ? n. — Grafton 
county ? h. p. — Of Coos county ? l. What 9 Towns on 
Connecticut river ? s. p. n. l. ii o. ii. c. w. — What 4 Towns 
in Cheshire county ? w. k. s. w. — What4 Towns in Sullivan 
county ? s. c. n. c. — What 2 Towns in Hillsborough county ? 
a. n. — W hat 4 Towns in Rockingham county ? c i>. e. p. — 
What 4 Towns in StrafFord county ? d. r. g. m. — What 
Lake in Strafford county ? w* — What 2 Towns in Merri 
mack county ? c. s. — W hat 4 Towns in Grafton county ? 
n. o. h. p. — What 4 Towns in Coos county ? l. n. r. s. — 
What Mountains in Coos county? w. — YVhat is said re- 
specting their height ? What Lake in the northern part of 
Coos county ? c. — What River rises in it ? c. — W'hat col- 
lege in New Hampshire ? [See page 59.] How many square 
miles has N. Hampshire ? When, where, and by whom was 
N. Hampshire settled ? How will you sail from Portsmouth 
to Burlington ? 


VERMONT. 

How is Vermont bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Vermont is a beautiful, picturesque, and in- 

*Win'ne-pe-so'ge. 


72 


NORTH AMERICA. 


land slate ; and derives its name from the Green 
mountains, which extend through its whole length, 
dividing it into eastern and western declivities. 

It is a well watered, healthy, and fertile state, 
and is noted for its mines of iron i copper , and lead , 
and for its numerous quarries of marble . 

Chief Towns. —Montpelier is a beautiful and flourishing 
town, pleasantly situated on Onion river, 43 miles from its 
mouth. Pop. 3,000. 

Bennington is the oldest, and one of the largest towns in 
the state. It is celebrated for a battle fought here, in 1777, 
in which the Americans, under Gen. Stark, defeated a de- 
tachment from the army of Burgoyne. Pop. 3000. 

Burlington is pleasantly situated on Lake Champlain, and 
is the most commercial town in- the state. Pop. 2500. 

Middlebury, situated on Otter creek, 20 miles from its 
mouth, is the greatest manufacturing town in the state. 
Pop. 2500. 

J\fap of the United States . — What Lake between Vermont 
and New York ? c. — What River connects it to the St. Law- 
rence ? s. — What River forms the boundary between Ver- 
mont and New Hampshire ? What Mountains in Vermont ? 
What is the length of the Green Mountains ? How high are 
they ? [See map of the World.] 

MAP OF NEW ENGLAND. 

Which are the five principal Rivers in Vermont? c. m. l. 
o. o-c. — What thirteen Counties has Vermont ? w. w. o. c. 
e. o. f. c. a. r. b. w. and Grand Isle. [Grand Isle County 
embraces Grand Island, and the Peninsula in the northern 
part of lake Champlain.] What five Counties border on 
Connecticut river? What three Counties border on Lower 
Canada? What 5 on L. Champlain and N. York? What 
two on Massachusetts? What one in the interior? Which 
is the Shire Town of Windham county? n. — What are the 
two Shire Towns in Windsor county? w. w. — Which of Or- 
ange county? c. — Which are the Shire Towns of each of 
the other counties ? What five Towns on the Connecticut 
river? c g. b. w. b. — What Town on lake Champlain? b. — 
What three Towns on Otter creek? v. m. r. — What Town 
near lake Memphremagog? c. — What Colleges in Vermont, 
and where are they located? How many square miles has 
Vermont? When, by whom, and where was Vermont first 


NORTH AMERICA. 


to 


settled? What is the length and average breadth of lake 
Champlain ? [Sec page 59.] What small Lake in N. York, 
5. of L. Champlain? How is L. Champlain connected with 
the Hudson? What is the length of the Champlain and 
Hudson Canal? [See page 58.] How will you sail from 
lirattleborough to Boston ? 


MASSACHUSETTS. 


Landing oj the Pilgrims at Plymouth. 

How is Massachusetts bounded ? What is its Capital? 



Ill a griculture, manufactures, and commerce, 
Massachusetts is one of the first states in the Un- 
ion. It is distinguished for the number of its lit- 
erary institutions, and for the intelligence, indus- 
try, and enterprise of its inhabitants. 

It is generally an uneven, and healthy state, 
and has a fertile soil, well adapted to pasturage 
or tillage. 


i 

Chief Towns . — Boston is a large, wealthy, and beautiful 
city, pleasantly situated on a small peninsula in Massachu- 
setts bay. it has an ( xcellent harbour, and an extensive 
commerce ; and is noted for the elegance of its public build- 
ings, and for the number of its humane and literary institu- 
tions. Bop. 05,000. 


74 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Salem is a pleasant and flourishing town, 14 miles N. E. of 
Boston. In commerce, population and wealth, it is the third 
town in New England.- Pop. 16,000. 

Plymouth, 36 miles S. E. of Boston, is a place of consid- 
erable trade, and is noted for being the first settled town in 
New England. Pop. about 6000. 

[The first English settlement in New England was made 
at Plymouth, Dec. 22d, 1620, by 101 Puritans, who fled from 
England on account of religious persecution. The anniver- 
sary of the landing of the Pilgrims is still observed.] 

Map of the United Stales. — What Bay east of Massachu- 
setts ? m. — W hat 3 Capes has Massachusetts ? What 2 Isl- 
ands S. E. of Massachusetts? m. n. — What River passes 
through Massachusetts ? What River in the N. E. part ? m. 
— What is the length of the Merrimack ? 


MAP OF NEW ENGLAND. 

What 3 Bays on the coast of Massachusetts? m. c. b. 
Which is the largest River in Massachusetts? — What 2 
branches has the Connecticut on the west side? w. d. What 
one on the east? c. — What River in the N. E. part? m. — 
What considerable branch has the Merrimack ? n. What 
Canal connects the Merrimack river to Boston harbour? 
What is the length, width, and depth of the Middlesex Ca- 
nal ? [See page 58.] W hat River rises in the western part 
of the State, and passes through Connecticut into Long Isl- 
and Sound? h. What 14 Counties has Massachusetts? b. 
v . b. n. e. m. w. f. e. h. h. Suffolk, Duke’s and Nantucket. 
[Suffolk county embraces the peninsula on which Boston is 
situated, and the small division N. of Boston harbour. 
Duke’s county embraces Martha’s Vineyard ; and Nantucket 
county, the Island of Nantucket.] What 3 Counties in the 
S. E. part of Massachusetts ? b. p. b. — What 5 Counties are 
bounded N. by N. Hampshire and Vermont? e. m. w. f. b* — 
What 4 are bounded S. by Connecticut and R.hode Island ? 
B. h. w. n. — What County in the interiour? h. — What 
County embraces the Peninsula of Cape Cod ? b. — Which 
is the Shire Town of Barnstable County ? b. — What 3 other 
Towns? p. e. w. — Which is the Shire Town of Bristol 
County? t. — What other Town? n-b. — How is New Bed- 
ford situated ? Mention the Shire and other Towns of each 
of the other counties. What 6 Towns on Massachusetts 
bay? s. d. b. m. s. g. — W hat 2 Towns on the Merrimack 
jiver? a. n. — What 6 Towns on Connecticut river? g. d. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


va 

h. n. s-;r. s. — Wliat Town in the N. W. corner of the state 
on the Hoosack river? w. — What Town in the S. W. part, 
on the Housatonic river ? s.-YVbich is the most eastern Town 
in Massachusetts? e. What Mountains in the western part 
of Massachusetts ? ir. What Mountain near Northampton? 
t. What literary institutions has Massachusetts ? When 
was Harvard University incorporated? How large is. its Li- 
brary ? How will you sail from Boston to Providence ? 


RHODE ISLAND. 

How is Rhode Island bounded ? What arc its Capitals ? 

Rhode Island is a small, pleasant, and healthy 
state ; and is distinguished for its flourishing 
manufactures, and extensive commerce. 

It is mostly a level state, and has generally a 
fertile soil, especially on the islands and shores 
of Narragansct bay. 

Rhode Island, from which the state takes its name, is in 
the sou i hem part of Narragansct bay, and contains about 50 
squaro miles. It is celebrated for its delightful and healthy 
climate, and is a noted resort of in valids from various parts of 
the Unitod States. 

Chief Towns . — Providence is situated on Providence riv- 
er, at the head of Narragansct bay, 35 miles from the ocean. 
It is one of the most wealthy and flourishing towns of its 
size in the United States. It has an extensive commerce, 
and is distinguished for the extent and variety of its manu- 
factures. Pop. 20,000. 

Newport is finely situated on Rliodo Island, and is distin- 
guished for its beautiful situation, and the salubrity of its 
climate. It has considerable commerce, and^Dnc of the best 
harbours in the United States. Pop. 3*000, 
f Bristol is a pleasant, wealthy, and commercial town, situ- 
ated about half way between Providence and Newport. 
Pop. 4,00Q. 

Pawtucket, situated on Pawtucket falls, 4 miles N. E. of 
Providence, is one of the most flourishing manufacturing 
villages in the United States. 

Map of the United States . — What Island S. of Rhode Isl- 
and ? b. — What Bay in Rhode Island ? n. — What Island in 
the southern part of Narragansct bay? it-i. — In what direc- 


76 NORTH AMERICA. 

. V ^ f' t ’ 

tion is Providence from Hartford ? Boston ? Albany ? How 
far from Providence is Boston ? Hartford ? New-York ? 
Philadelphia ? W ashington ? 


MAP OF NEW ENGLAND. 

What 5 Counties in Rhode Island ? p. k. w. Newport and 
Bristol. [Newport county embraces Rhode Island and sev- 
eral other islands in Narraganset bay, and that portion of the 
state east of the bay. Bristol county embraces the small por- 
tion of the state N. of Narraganset bay.] Which is the Shire 
Town of Providence county? p. — What 2 other Towns in 
Providence county? s. p. — What is the Shire Town of Kent 
county 3 e-g. — Which is the Shire Town of Washington 
county? s-k.— Of Newport county ? n. — Bristol county ? b. 
— Between what two points docs Narraganset Bay open into 
the Atlantic ? j. and Seakonnet point on the east. What 
is the length of Narraganset Bay ? What University in 
Rhode Island? When was it incorporated? How large is 
its library ? When, where, and by whom, was Rhode Isl- 
and settled ? What Canal connects Providence and Wor- 
cester? b. — [S ee page 58.] What is the length, breadth and 
depth of the Blackstone canal? How will you sail from 
Providence to Hartford ? 


CONNECTICUT. 



-f Hartford State House . 

How is Connecticut bounded? What are its Capitals? 

^Connecticut is a small; healthy and fertile state, 

*/ 7 






NORTH AMERICA. 


77 


and is noted for the extent and variety of its 
manufactures, — for its literary institutions, — and 
for the intelligence, enterprise, and good morals 
of the people. 

Connecticut has an undulating surface, and 
abounds in beautiful scenery. 

It is well situated for commerce, and carries 
on a considerable trade with the West Indies, 
and with the Northern and Southern States. 

Chief Towns. — Hartford is pleasantly situated on th° 
Connecticut river, 50 miles from its mouth, in the midst of 11 
beautiful and fertile country. During a few years past, d 
has rapidy increased in commerce, population, and wealth. 
It. contains a number of elegant public buildings, and is one 
of the largest, and most flourishing towns in the stato. Pop. 
8,500. 

[Among the literary institutions in Hartford, is the u Amer- 
ican Asylum for the education of the Deaf and Dumb,” under 
the direction of Rev. T. H. Gallaudot. The Asylum was 
established in this city in 1817, being the first institution of 
the kind in America.] 

New Haven is beautifully situated on a bay of the same 
name, 4 miles from Long Island Sound. It is regularly laid 
out, and contains a number of elegant buildings, and is one of 
the most beautiful tow'tis in the United States. Pop. 9,000. 

New London is situated on the Thames, 3 miles from its 
mouth. It has a considerable amount of shipping, and one 
of the best harbours in New England. Pop. 3,500. 

Norwich is finely situated at the head of sloop navigation 
on the river Thames, 14 miles N. of New London. It is a 
beautiful and romantic town, and is rapidly increasing in 
manufactures and population. Pop. 4,500. 

Middletown is pleasantly situated on the Connecticut, 31 
miles from ifs mouth. It has aco nsiderablo share of com- 
merce, and is noted for the extent and variety of its manu- 
factures. Pop. 4,000. 

[The “ American Inter ary. Scientific , and Alililary Acad- 
emy ” was etablished here, in 1824, under the superintend 
deuce of Capt. Alden Partridge.] 


78 


NORTH AMERICA. 


, Litchfield, 30 miles W. of Hartford, is the scat of a cele- 
brated Law School, which was established in 1784, hy the 
Hon. Tapping Reeve. Pop. 5,000. 

Stafford, 27 miles N. E. of Hartford, is distinguished for 
its iron works and mineral waters. Pop. 3,000. 

Map of the United States . — Which is the largest river in 
Connecticut ? What is its length ? How far is it from 
Hartford to Providence ? Boston ? Portland ? St. Louis ? 
How many square miles has Connecticut ? [See page 62.] 
What is the length of Long Island Sound? 

MAP OF NEW ENGLAND. 

> Which are the 3 largest Rivers in Connecticut ? h. c. t. 
What branch has the Housatonic? n. — What branch has the 
Connecticut? f. — What 2 rivers unite at Norwich and form 
the Thames?* A. The Shetucket and Yantic. What 8 

Counties has Connecticut ? l. h. t. w. n-l. m. n-h. f. 

What 4 are bounded N. by Massachusetts? l. ii. t. w. 

What 2 are bounded E. by Rliode Island? w. n-l. — What 
4 border on L. Island Sound? n-l. m. n-h. f. — What 2 are 
hounded W. by New-York ? f. l. — W T hat 5 towns in Fair- 
field county ? d. s. b. f. n. — Which are the 2 Shire Towns ? 
f. d. — What 5 towns in New Haven county ? n-it. d. g. c. 
w. — -Which is the Shire Town? n-h. — W hat 3 Towns in 
Middlesex county ? m. h. s. — W hich is the Shire Town m 
Middlesex county ? m. — What 4 towns in New London 
county ? n. n-l. l. s. — Which are the 2 Shire Towns? n-l. 
n. — What 3 T owns in Windham county ? w. b. w. — Which 
is the Shire Town? n. — What 2 Towns in Tolland county ? 
,s. t. — Which is the Shire Town? t. — What 5 towns in 
Plartford county? w. h. e. w. s. — Which is the Shire town? 
ii. — What 3 Towns in Litchfield county ? l. s. c. — What is 
idle Shire Town ? l. — What 9 Towns on the Connecticut 
river? s. e. w. ii. w. m. ii. l. s. — What 5 Towns on Long 
Island Sound ? n. f. b. s. g. — What large Island S. of Con- 
necticut? To what State does it belong ? A. To New- 
fork. What 5 Towns on Long Island ? What Island east 

of it? What small Islands S. of Connecticut? f. g. p. 

What Canal in Connecticut ? f. — What is its length ? What 
literary institutions has Connecticut ? When, where, and by 
whom, was Connecticut settled? How will you sail from 
Hartford to Albany? 


* Tames. 


NORTH AMERICA 


79 


MIDDLE STATES. 



A View of the Grand Western Canal . 

Which are the Middle States ? Which is the most north- 
ern of the Middle States ? Which is the most southern ? 
Which extends farthest east ? Which extends farthest west ? 
Which of these states has no sea-coast ? Which is the 
smallest of the Middle States ? Which is the next smallest ? 
Which is the largest ? What important Island belongs to 
New York ? l. i. 

The middle states are distinguished for agri- 
culture, manufactures and commerce , and for 
their numerous and extensive canals which open 
an easy water communication through all parts 
of the interiour. 

In most parts, they have a rich, fertile soil, and 
a mild and healthy climate. Wheat is the most 
important production ; but rye , oats , barley, maize, 
buckwheat, beans, flax, and hem]), are extensively 
cultivated. The climate is adapted to the growth 
of various kinds of excellent fruit ; apples, pears, 
and peaches are produced in abundance. 

Except New-York, the state of education is much inferiour 
to that of New England, the lower classes being generally 



80 


NORTH AMERICA. 


rude and ignorant. In New-York ample provision is made 
by law for the education of all ranks of Society ; and in no 
other part of the Union is there so much system and regular- 
ity, in the elementary branches of education as in this state. 


NEW YORK. 



Niagara Fails. 

How is New-York bounded ? What is its Capital? 


In commerce, population, and wealth, New 
York is the first state in the Union. The eastern 
part of the state is uneven and hilly ; the northern 
is mountainous ; and the western , level. 

The soil in most parts is fertile, well fitted for 
agriculture or grazing. The climate in the 
northern part is cold ; in other parts of the state 
it is mild and generally healthy. 


There are several salt springs in this state, from which are 
manufactured vast quantities of salt. The most noted are 
those of Salma, 130 miles W. of Albany. 

The most celebrated mineral springs are those of Sarato- 
ga, 32 miles N. of Albany, and those of Ballstovvn, 7 miles S. 
W. of Saratoga. At New Lebanon, 27 mi’es S. E. of Alba- 
ny, arc warm springs , mj,ich frequented for bathing. 


T\w falls of Niagara in the river of the same name, 


be 


NORTH AMERICA. 


81 


tween lake Erie and lake Ontario, surpasses all others on the 
globe. The river is three quarters of a mile in width, and 
falls perpendicularly over a precipice, 160 feet. In the Mo- 
hawk, 2 miles from its mouth, are the Cohoes falls. 

Towns. — Albany is finely situated on the Hudson, 160 
miles north of the city of New York, at the point where the 
Champlain and Erie canals unite with the Hudson. Pop. 

18,000. 

New York is situated on the southern point of Manhattan 
island. It is the most populous city in the United States ; 
and one of the first commercial cities on the globe. Pop. 

170.000. 

Hudson is finely situated for trade, 30 miles south of Al- 
bany, at the head of ship navigation on the Hudson. Pop. 

3.000. 

Newburgh, ^Poughkeepsie, tTroy, Cattskill, and Water- 
ford, are places of considerable trade. 

The towns in the interior and western parts of the state, 
during a few years past have increased in population with 
unexampled rapidity. 

Utica, 93 miles N. W. of Albany, on the Mohawk, is a 
flourishing and commercial city. Pop. 8,000. 

Sacket’s Harbour is situated at the mouth of Black river, 
176 miles N. W. of Albany. Its harbour is the best on L. 
Ontario. Pop. 2,000. 

Rochester, situated at the falls in Genesee river, 6 miles 
from its mouth, at the place where the Erie Canal crosses the 
river, is one of the most flourishing towns in the state. The 
first house was erected in 1812, the present population is 

11 . 000 . 

What River in the eastern part of New York? h. What 
is its principal branch? w. — What 3 Rivers empty intoL. 
Ontario ? b. o. g. — W hat 3 Rivers in the southern part of 
the State ? s. a. d. — What 3 Towns on the east bank of the 
Hudson? t. h. p. — Where is the Military Academy of West 
Point ? What 4 Towns on the West bank of the Hudson ? 
n. k. c. a. — What 3 Towns on the Mohawk ? s. u. R. — What 
3 Towns on L. Champlain ? t. r. c. — What 2 Towns on the 
St. Lawrence? o. m. — What town at the mouth of Black 
river ? s-n. — What Town at the mouth of Oswego river ? o. 
What Town on (he Genesee river? r. What Town on the 
Grand Canal west of Rochester ? l. — What 2 Towns on 


* Po-kep'se. 


t Pop. 8,840. 


82 


NORTH AMERICA. 


L. Erie? b. d. — What Town on the Alleghany river ? h. — 
What Town on the Susquehanna ? b. — What 5 Towns in 
the interior? g. a. i. u. s. — What 5 Colleges in New York, 
and where are they located ? Where are Saratoga Springs ? 
Where are Niagara Falls? What Canal connects the Hud- 
son to Lake Champlain ? A. Champlain and Hudson Canal. 
What Towns at the extremities of the Grand Western Canal? 
a. b. — What is the length of the G. W. Canal? How will 
you sail from Albany to Trenton ? 


NEW JERSEY. 



Fassatc Falls, 

How is New Jersey bounded ? What is its capital? 

The commerce of New Jersey is small ; but 
its manufactures, in proportion to its population, 
exceed those of half the larger states. 

The state is level in the south ; uneven and 
hilly in the middle ; and mountainous in the 
north . The middle part of the state is extremely 
fertile. New Jersey is noted for its excellent 
cider and fruit. 

Towns . — Trenton, situated at the head of tide waters on 
the Delaware, is a place of considerable trade and manufac- 
tures. Pop. 4,000. 

New Brunswick is pleasantly situated on the Raritan, 14 



NORTH AMERICA. 


83 


miles from its mouth. It is the most commercial town in the 
state. Pop. 7,000. 

Newark, on the Passaic, 9 miles W. of New York, is one 
of the most beautiful towns in the U. States. It is distin- 
guished for its manufacture of shoes and leather. Pop. 7,000. 

Patterson is situated on the Passaic river, 15 miles N. W. 
of New York. Jt is a flourishing town, and the seat of very 
important manufacturing establishments. 

[The Passaic fall* at this place, are the greatest curiosity 
in the state. The river is 40 yards wide, and falls perpendi- 
cularly 70 led in one entire sheet ; presenting a scene of sin- 
gular beauty and grandeur, j 

What River separates New Jersey from Pennsylvania ? 
What River forms part of the eastern boundary of New Jer- 
sey? ii. — What is the southern Cape of New Jersey? m. * 
What is the most northern Cape? s-h.— What Harbours on 

the coast? What 2 Towns near New York city? n. b. 

Which is the most northern Town? r. — What falls are there 
at Patterson ? What Towm on Delaware Ray ? s.— AVliat is 
the length of Delaware Ray ? A. 65 miles. What literary 
Institutions has New Jersey? When was New Jersey first 
settled? How many square miles has New Jersey? [Seepage 
62.] How will you sail from Trenton to Harrisburg ? 


PENNSYLVANIA. 

How is Pennsylvania bounded ? Its Capital? 

Pennsylvania is a large, healthy, and fertile 
state ; and is distinguished for its agriculture, 
manufactures, and commerce, — for its fine roads 
and bridges, — and for its extensive mines of coal. 

The middle portion of the state is mountainous; 
the remainder is generally level. The English 
inhabitants form about one halt the population : 
The remainder consists of Germans, Dutch, and 
Irish. 

Powns. Harrisburg is pleasantly situated on the Sus- 
quehannah, 97 miles N. W. of Philadelphia. It is regularly 
laid out, and handsomely built. Pop. 4,000. 


84 


NORTH AMERICA 


Philadelphia, in the extent and variety of its manufactures, 
is the first city in the Union. It is pleasantly situated be- 
tween the Delaware and Schuylkill, 6 miles above their con- 
fluence ; and by the course of the river and bay, 126 miles 
from the Atlantic. It is distinguished for the neatness and 
regularity of its streets, and for its literary and scientific insti- 
tutions. Pop. 130,000. 

Pittsburg is situated at the junction of the Alleghany and 
Monongaheia, 300 miles N. W. of Philadelphia. It is one of 
the greatest manufacturing towns in the United States, and 
is the centre of an extensive trade. Pop. 12,000. 

What river forms the eastern boundary of Pennsylvania? 
What two branches has the Delaware ? [A. The Lehigh and 
Schuylkill, L. and S. on the map.] What river passes nearly 
through the middle of the state ? What two branches has the 
Susquehanna ? [The most southern one is Junietta, marked 
J.] What rivers unite and form the Ohio ? What town on the 
Delaware, in the north-eastern part of the state ? At the j unc- 
tion of what two rivers is Easton ? l. d. At the junction of 
what two is Philadelphia? s. n. — What Town between Phil- 
adelphia and Harrisburg? What five Towns on the Susque- 
hanna ? h. s. n. w. m. — What Town on the West Branch ? w. 
What Town on the Junietta? n. — What 3 Towns directly 
W. of Philadelphia ? y. c. b. — W hat Town S. W. of Harris- 
burg? c. — At the junction of what 2 rivers is Pittsburg ? In 
what direction from Pittsburg is Greenburg ? Washington ? 
What 2 Towns on the branches of the Allegany ? j. M.-What 
Town on Lake Erie ? e. — Which is the most N. E. Town in 
Pennsylvania? d. — Which is the most S. E. Town? r. — - 
Which is the most S. W. Town ? w. — Which is the most N. 
W. ? e. — What is the length of the Susquehanna? Delaware ? 
Allegany ? Monongaheia ? What Mountains pass through 
Pennsylvania ? a. — How far is it from New York to Phila- 
delphia ? From Philadelphia to Washington ? What 5 Col- 
leges has Pennsylvania, and where are they located ? In 
what direction fromPhiladelphia is Washington ? New York? 
Detroit? New Orleans ? How will you sail from Harrisburg 
to Dover ? 


DELAWARE. 

How is Delaware bounded ? What is its Capital ? 


Delaware is the least populous state in the 


NORTH AMERICA. 


85 


Union ; and the smallest in extent, except Rhode 
Island. 

The northern part of the state, is generally 
hilly, and has a rich, fertile soil ; the southern 
part is level, and unproductive. 

The commerce of Delaware is small ; but its 
manufactures are considerable. 

Delaware is distinguished for its fine wheal. 

Towns. — Dover is situated on Jones’ Creek, 7 miles from 
its entrance into Delaware bay. Pop. 1,200. 

Wilmington is situated in the northern part of the state, 
between Christiana and Brandywine creeks, 1 mile above 
their confluence. It is the largest and most important town 
in the state, and is celebrated for its flour mills, and other 
manufacturing establishments. Pop. about 6,000. 

How many square miles has Delaware? Which is the 
most northern town in Delaware? w. — What Town south 
of Wilmington ? n-c. — Wfliat Cape has Delaware? if. — In 
what direction from Dover is Washington ? New-York ? 
Richmond? Harrisburg? Hartford? What is the length 
of Delaware Bay? What Canal connects Delaware and 
Chesapeake Bays ? [See page 58.] What is the length, 
breadth and depth ? How will you sail from Dover to An- 
napolis?' 

SOUTHERN STATES. 



86 


NOliTH AMERICA. 


Which are the Southern States ? How many are there? 
Which is the most northern of the Southern States? Which 
is the most western State ? llow many of them border on 
the Atlantic? Which is the largest of the Southern States ? 
Which is the smallest? What Territory is included with 
the Southern States? 

The Southern States, in extent of territory, far 
surpass the Eastern, or Middle States ; and tire 
distinguished for their valuable productions, nu- 
merous slaves, and for the amount of their exports. 

The eastern part of the Southern States, va- 
rying from 60 to 200 miles in breadth, is a low 
sandy plain, and generally barren, except on the 
rivers and sounds. The interiour is hilly and 
mountainous, and has a rich, fertile soil. The 
climate, in the eastern part is warm and un- 
healthy ; in the interiour , it is mild and salubrious. 

Wheat, tobacco , and maize are the principal 
productions in the northern part ; rice , cotton , 
and sugar in the southern ; and pitch , tar , tur- 
pentine and boards in the eastern part. 

The eastern part, or low country, is inhabited principally 
by planters, who live on large plantations at a considerable 
distance from each other, and have many slaves. The in- 
teriour and western parts are inhabited by farmers, who have 
few slaves and small estates, depending principally on their 
own labour for support. 

The higher classes, in the southern states, are well inform- 
ed, polite and hospitable ; but the lower classes are rude and 
extremely ignorant. The slaves perform most of the labour 
of the Southern States, and form nearly half the population. 


MARYLAND. 

How is Maryland bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Maryland, considering its extent and population 
is one of the first commercial states in the Union. 

It is divided into two parts by Chesapeake bay, 
called the eastern and western shore. The cast - 


NORTH AMERICA. 


87 


cm part is generally level ; the western part is 
hilly and mountainous. 

The soil is generally fertile. The principal 
articles of export are flour and tobacco. 

Towns. — Annapolis is pleasantly situated on the Severn 
river, 2 miles from its entrance into Chesapeake bay. Pop. 
about 3,000. 

Baltimore ds situated on the Patapsco river, 14 miles from 
its entrance into Chesapeake bay. It is well situated for 
commerce ; and in the amount of its shipping, it is the third 
town in the Union. It is divided by a small river into two 
parts, called the town, and Fell’s point. The latter is the 
principal seat of commercial business. Pop. 70,000. 

What Bay divides Maryland ? What is the length of 
Chesapeake bay? What River empties into the head of 
Chesapeake bay? What River separates Mar) land from 
Virginia? How is Annapolis situated ? How is Baltimore 
situated ? What 2 Towns N. W. of Baltimore ? f. ii. — 
What Town in the southern part on the Potomac ? What 
Mountains pass through Maryland? What Colleges in this 
State? How many square* miles has Maryland? When, 
where, and by whom was Maryland settled? What Canal 
connects the Delaware and Chesapeake Bays ? What is its 
length, breadth, and depth ? [See page 58.] How will you 
sail from Annapolis to Washington? 


DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA. 



A View of the Capitol. 


88 


NORTH AMERICA. 


The District of Columbia is 10 miles square, 
lying on both sides of the Potomac river, 120 
miles from its mouth. It was given to the United 
States by Maryland and Virginia in 1790 ; and 
in 1800, it became the seat of the General Gov- 
ernment. 

It contains Washington, Alexandria and 
Georgetown. t 

Washington, the Capital of the United States, is situated 
on the Potomac, 300 miles by the course of the river and 
bay, from the ocean. The city is laid out on a regular plan, 
and when completed, it will be one of the most beautiful 
and commodious cities on the globe. The Capitol fdr^the 
meetings of Congress is built of white free-stone, and is the 
most magnificent edifice in the United States. Pup. 18,000. 

Alexandria is situated on the W . bank of tlgd ' Potomac, 6 
miles south of W ashington. It has an extensive trade, prin- 
cipally in flour. Pop. 9,000. 

Georgetown is situated on the Pc$0fnac, 3 miles west of 
Washington. It is a handsomcy^wn, and has considerable 
trade. Pop. 8,000. Jr 

How many square miles in the District of Columbia ? 
What Colleges in the District of Columbia ? What Cities 
in the District of Columbia ? How far is Hartford from 
Washington ? Philadelphia ? New York ? New Orleans ? 
Boston? Portland? In what direction from Washington 
do you live? How far is Washington from the Atlantic? 
Georgetown? How long since Washington became the 
seat of the General Government ? 





NORTH AMERICA. 
VIRGINIA. 


Natural Bridge, 

How is Virginia boundod ? What is its Capital ? 

Virginia is the largest, and one of the most 
powerful and populous States in the Union. 

It is divided by the Blue Ridge into two parts. 
The western part is hilly and mountainous ; the 
eastern is generally level. 

The climate near the coast is hot and unhealthy 
in the summer ; in the interiour and western 
parts, it is cool and salubrious. 

Wheat , tobacco , and corn are the most valua- 
ble productions, and are important articles of 
commerce. 

The Natural Bridge over Cedar Creek, is one of the 
greatest natural curiosities in the world. It is about 100 
feet in length, 60 feet wide, and 250 feet high above the sur- 
face of the water. 

Towns . — Richmond is pleasantly situated at the Falls on 
James river, 150 miles from its mouth. It is well situated 
for trade, and has a considerable share of commerce. Pop. 
16,000. 

Norfolk is situated on Elizabeth river, 8 miles from its en- 
trance into Hampton Roads. Its harbour is good, and it ban 

8 * 



90 


NORTH AMERICA. 


more foreign commerce than any other town m the state. 
Pop. about 12,000. ^ 

Yorktown, situated on York river 11 miles from its mouth, 
is famous for the capture of Lord Cornwallis and his army, 
19th of October, 1781. 

Mount Vernon is situated on the Potomac, 9 miles below 
Alexandria. It is memorable for having been the residence 
of Gen. Washington. 

What 2 Rivers rise in Virginia and empty into Albemarle 
Sound? r. e. — What 4 Rivers empty into Chesapeake bay? 
j. y. r. r. — What branch has the Potomac? s. What 4 
Rivers empty into the Ohio ? m. l-k. g-k. b-s. — What 
Mountains in Virginia ? What is the most eastern ridge 
called? b. — What 2 Towns on the James River? r. l. 
What Town on the Appomattox, a branch of the James 
river? r. — What is the principal seaport in Virginia ? n. 
How is it situated ? Where is Yorktown, and for what is it 
celebrated ? What place near York river ? w. — What Town 
on the Rappahannoc ? f. — What 4 Towns among the 
Mountains ? w. s. l. g. — What Town on the Monongahela ? 
m. — W hat Town at the mouth of the G. Kanhawa? r-p. 
What 2 Towns on the G. Kanhawa? c. g. — What Town 
on a branch of the Roanoke ? m. — What 2 Towns on the 
head branches of the Tennessee river ? f. a. — What Town 
on the peninsula between Chesapeake bay and the Atlantic ? 
d. — What 2 Capes has Virginia ? What 4 Colleges has Vir- 
ginia? What is the length of the James river? Rappahan- 
noc ? What Canal connects Chesapeake bay to Albe- 
marle Sound? How will you sail from Richmond to New- 
bern ? 


NORTH CAROLINA. 

How is North Carolina bounded ? Its capital ? 

The eastern part of North Carolina for 70 or 
80 miles from the sea, is entirely level, abounding 
in pine forests, which furnish vast quantities of 
pitch , tar , turpentine and lumber , for exporta- 
tion. The inter iour is uneven and hilly ; and 
the western part mountainous. 

The coast is lined with sand banks and islands 


NORTH AMERICA. 


<J1 


/ 


which render access to the bays and sounds ex- 
tremely difficult. Its commerce is chiefly carried 
on through the seaports of the neighbouring 
states. The exports are rice , cotton , tobacco , 
pitch , tar, turpentine and lumber. 

Towns * — Raleigh is pleasantly situated near the central 
part of the state, containing- about 3,000 inhabitants. 

Newbern is the largest town in the state, and has a con- 
siderable share of commerce. Pop. 4,000. 

Wilmington is the most commercial town in the state. It. 
is situated on Cape Fear river, 36 miles from its mouth. 
Pop. about 3,000. 

The towns in this state are small, the inhabitants living 
mostly on their plantations. 

What 3 Capes has N. Carolina? ii.l. f. — What2 Sounds? 
What is the length of Albemarle sound? Pamlico sound ? 
What are the Rivers of N. Carolina? g-p. l-p. c-f. n. r. R. c. 
What river rises in the N. W. part of the state and empties 
into the Ohio ? g-k. — W hat place in the N. E. part of the 
state? e-c. — What town on Albemarle sound, at the mouth 
of the Chowan ? e. — What town on the Roanoke ? h. — What 
town on Pamlico river? w. — What 2 towns on the Neuse? 
n. h. — What town near Raleigh? c-H. — What 3 towns on 
Cape Fear river ? f. a. w. — What 2 towns on the branches 
of the G. Pedee ? s. s. — What town W. of Fayetteville? c. 
What town in the western part of the state? m. — W hat 
springs near the borders of Tennessee? w-s. — What seaport 
on Core sound, S. E. of Newbern ? r. — W hat College in N. 
Carolina ? How will you sail from Newbern to Columbia ? 


SOUTH CAROLINA. 

How is South Carolina bounded ? Its Capital ? 

The coast of South Carolina, to the distance 
of 100 miles from the sea, is low, flat, sandy and 
unhealthy. The rivers are bordered with marsh- 
es, in which are produced large crops of rice. 

The interior is beautifully diversified with 
hills and dales ; and has a rich, fertile soil. The 


*Ra\v-le, 


92 


NORTH AMERICA. 


western part is mountainous, and has a cool and 
healthy climate. 

The chief productions are cotton and rice ; be- 
sides these, pitch , tar , turpentine and lumber are 
exported in large quantities. 

Towns. — Columbia is pleasantly situated on the Congarce, 
near the centre of the state. It is regularly laid out, on an 
elevated plain, and contains about 4,000 inhabitants. 

Charleston is situated at the junction of Ashley and Cooper 
rivers, 7 miles from the ocean. It is regularly laid out, and 
has a large share of commerce, wealth, and refinement. Pop. 
30,000. 

What are the rivers of S. Carolina? s. c. e. s. o-r. — What 
Island E. of Charleston? s. — What seaport in the southern 
part of the state, on Tort Royal island? b. — What 4 towns 
in the western part of the state ? r. a. g. e. — Howis Charles- 
ton situated ? What town on W inyaw bay, at the mouth of 
the G. Pedcc ? c. — What town on the Wateree, a branch ol 
the Santee ? c. — What town between Camden and George- 
town ? k.— r-What 2 Colleges in S. Carolina, and how are they 
located ? How will you sail from Columbia to Milledgeville ? 


GEORGIA. 

How is -Georgia hounded ? What is its Capital? 

Georgia is levels barren, and sandy on the 
coast, hilly in the interior, and mountainous in 
the north. 

The chief productions are cotton , rice , tobacco , 
coffee, sugar, figs, oranges , olives, pomegranates, 
lemons, fyc. 

The winters are mild and agreeable ■; but the 
summers are warm and unhealthy* especially 
in the southern part. 

Towns. — Milledgeville is pleasantly situated on the 
Oconee. It is a flourishing town, and has a considerable 
trade. Pop. 3,000. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


93 


Savannah is situated on the river Savannah, 17 miles from 
its mouth. It is the largest town in the state, and has an 
extensive commerce. Population 8,000. 

Augusta is a nourishing town on the Savannah river, 127 
miles by land, above Savannah. It is well situated for 
trade, the produce of the northern part of the state being 
collected here, to be conveyed to Savannah. Population 
4,000. 


Which are the 3 principal Islands on the coast of Geor- 
gia? What 4 ltivers empty into the Atlantic? St-M. s. a. 
o. — What 2 Rivers unite and form the Altamahaw? o. o. 
What 2 Rivers unite and form the Appal achicola ? c. f. 
— What 2 Towns on the Savannah river ? s. a. — What 4 
Towns on the coast below Savannah ? s. d.b. St-M. — What 
Town on the Ogeechee ? L.-What Town between the Oconee 
and Ogeechee ? s. — What town on the Chatahoochee ? d. 
What 5 Towns in the northern part of the state ? j. e. c. c. 
a. — At which of these Towns is there a Missionary station ? 
What College in Georgia ? What Town in the southern 
part of the state ? i. — What is the length of the Altamahaw? 
Flint? What Indians in the N. W. part of Georgia? c. 
The initials of certain towns in Georgia spell adams ; where 
are they situated ? How will you sail from Milledgeville to 
Tuscaloosa ? 


ALABAMA. 

How is Alabama bounded? What is its Capital? 

Alabama is a newly settled state and is distin- 
guished for the rapid increase of its population. 

A ridge of high land intersects the northern 
part, the remainder of the state is generally level, 
and has a fertile soil, especially on the banks of 
the rivers. 

The principal,* productions arc cotton, rice, 
maize and wheat . Cotton is the chief article of 
export. 

The climate is generally healthy, except in the 
southern part. 


94 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Tmvns . — Tuscaloosa is pleasantly situated on the Black 
W arrior river, near the centre of the state. It is a handsome 
and flourishing town regularly laid out ; containing about 
2,000 inhabitants. 

^Mobile is situated on Mobile river, 33 miles from the 
Gulf of Mexico. It is a place of considerable trade, and is 
rapidly increasing in commerce and population. Pop. 
4,000. 

Blakeley is on the eastern outlet of Mobile river, 15 miles 
east of Mobile. It is well situated for commerce, and has 
a good harbour of easy access. Pop. 1500. 

What 2 Rwers unite and form the Mobile river ? a. a. 
What river empties into the Tombigbee ? What River pass- 
es through the northern part of the state ? What Shoals 
in the Tennessee river ? What 2 Towns on Mobile river, at 
the head of Mobile bay ? m. b. — W hat Town on Mobile riv- 
er near the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee ? f, — 
What 3 Towns on the Alabama ? c. d. c. — What Town on 
the Tombigbee ? s. — What 2 Towns on the Black Warrior ? 
t. b. — What Town on the Tennessee river, in the N. W. 
part of the state ? f. — What Town in the northern part of 
the state ? ii. — W hat mountains terminate in Alabama? c. 
a. — How will you sail from Tuscaloosa to St. Augustine ? 


How is Florida bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Florida was formerly a Spanish Province, but 
in 1819 it was ceded by Spain to the United 
States, and in 1822 it was erected into a territo- 
rial government. 

The coasts are low, sandy, and generally bar- 
ren. The interiour is considerably elevated, and 
has a rich fertile soil, and abounds in wood of 
almost every kind, especially live oak. 

The principal productions are cotton , rice , su - 
gar , indigo , oranges , olives and figs. 

Towns . — Tallahassee is a newly settled town. Tt has a 


TERRITORY OF FLORIDA 



* Mo-beel'. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


95 


healthy situation, and is distinguished only as the seat of 
government. Pop. about 1,000. 

Pensacola is pleasantly situated on Pensacola bay, 50 miles 
east of Mobile. It has a good harbour, and is rapidly in- 
creasing in population and wealth. Pop. 4,000. 

St. Augustine is pleasantly situated on the Atlantic. It is 
regularly laid out, and distinguished for its dry and healthy 
atmosphere. Pop. 5,000. 


What 2 Islands near the mouth of St. Mary’s river ? a. t. 
Wliat cluster of the West India Islands S. E. of Florida? b. 
What 2 Capes east of Florida ? What Capes S. of Florida? 
What 2 other Capes? What arc the 3 principal Bays on 
the coastof Florida ? c. a. t. — What Stream passes between 
the Bahama Islands and the coast of Florida ? What is its 
velocity per hour at Jupiter Inlet? What large river in 
Florida empties into the Atlantic ? What are the 4 principal 
rivers emptying into the Gulf of Mexico ? a. p. e. s. — What 
is the length of the Gulf of Mexico ? What 2 Lakes in the 
interior ? s. m. — What tribe of Indians in the western part of 
Florida? s. — Which is the most western Town in Florida ? 
p. — What 2 Towns on the Appalachicola river? c. c. — 
What Town on St. Mark’s river, at the head of Apalachee 
bay ? What Town on the river St. John’s ? j. — What 
town in the interior ? m. — What Town on the coast below 
the mouth of the St. John’s ? How will you sail from St. 
Augustine to New Orleans ? 

WESTERN STATES. 



Ancient Fortifications and Mounds . 


96 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Which are the Western States? How many are there? 
Which is the most northeastern of the Western States? 
Which is the most southwestern ? Which one extends farth- 
est north ? Which extends farthest south ? On what 2 
Rivers do the Western States lie ? m. and o. 

The Western States are distinguished for their 
mild climate, fertile soil, extensive ^prairies, and 
for the rapid increase of their population. They 
are generally level, except in the eastern part of 
Tennessee and Kentucky. 

The principal productions are wheat and 
maize in the northern part ; cotton , hemp , and to - 
bacco in the middle ; and rice , cotton and sugar 
in the southern part. 

Fossil coal is found in various parts; and there 
are numerous salt springs , from which salt is 
manufactured in large quantities. 

The woods and forests abound in wild animals 
and the rivers are well stored with fish. 

These states are not generally supplied with common 
schools ; but provisions have recently been made for their 
establishment in almost every town. 

Numerous remains of fortifications, and mounds of earth, 
are found in various parts of the Western States. The 
construction of these, shews that they were built by men ac- 
customed to labour, and who possessed considerable know- 
ledge in the business of fortificaiions. They must have been 
erected at a remote period, as trees several hundred years 
old are often seen growing upon them. When and by whom 
they were erected is entirely unknown. 

LOUISIANA. 

How is Louisiana bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Louisiana is one of the most level and fertile 

* Prairies arc plains covered only with grass. They gen- 
erally have -a rich fertile soil, and often extend farther than 
the eye can reach. In Asia these plains are called Steppes , 
and in South America, Pampas . 


NORTH AMERICA. 


97 


states in the Union. The southern part around 
the mouth of the Mississippi, for 30 or 40 miles, 
is one continued swamp, covered only with a 
species of coarse reed, 4 or 5 feet high. About 
one fifth of the state is covered with vast 
prairies. 

A considerable part of the state is lower than 
the Mississippi, and to prevent its overflowing the 
land, levees or artificial embankments of earth, 
are raised, from five to thirty feet in height, on 
the banks of the river. 

The staple productions of Louisiana are cotton , 
sugar and rice . It has an extensive commerce, 
which is daily increasing. 

The climate is warm, and in most parts un- 
healthy. 

Towns . — New Orleans is situated on the Mississippi, 100 
miles from its mouth ; and is the great commercial empori- 
um for the vast territory watered by the Mississippi and its 
numerous branches. Its trade is extensive, and bids fair to 
become one of the first commercial cities in America. Pop. 
50 , 000 . 

Baton Rouge is situated on the cast bank of the Mississip- 
pi, 110 miles above New Orleans. It is a flourishing place, 
and is considered the most healthy situation on the river. 
Pop. 2,000. 

What arc the Rivers of Louisiana ? s. r. w. m. p. — What 
3 Towns on the east bank of the Mississippi ? n-o. b-r. s-f. 
What Town is situated on lake Pontchartrain, north of New- 
Orleans? m, — W hat Town on an outlet of the Mississippi, 
on the parallel of 30° N. lat. ? n. — What 2 Towns on Red 
river? n. a. — What Town on the Wachitta river? m. 
What 4 other Towns W. of the Mississippi ? o. St-M. n-i. f. 
Which is the most southern Town in Louisiana ? How is 
New Orleans situated ? [The island on which New Orleans 
is situated is called New Orleans isle. It is formed by the 
Mississippi river on one side, and by the Ibberville river, lakes 
Maurepas, Pontchartrain, Borgno, and the Gulf of Mexico on 

0 


98 


NORTH AMERICA. 


all other sides.] What College in this state? llow will 
you sail from New Orleans to Jackson ? 


MISSISSIPPI. 

How is Mississippi bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Mississippi is generally a level state, and lias a 
rich fertile soil, well adapted to the cultivation 
of cotton, rice and sugar. 

The climate is temperate, and in the elevated 
parts, it is generally healthy. 

The northern and northeastern portions of the 
state are inhabited by the Chickasaw and Choc- 
taw Indians, who have made considerable ad- 
vancement in the arts of civilized life. 

Towns . — Jackson, is situated near the centre of the state, 
and is a newly settled and flourishing town. Pop. about 
1 , 000 . 

Natchez has an elevated situation, and is the largest, and 
one of the most flourishing towns in the state. It is sur- 
rounded by a populous, fertile, and highly cultivated coun- 
try ; and is the great commercial depot for the settlements 
in the western part of the state. Pop. 5000. 

Washington is a flourishing town, 6 miles E. of Natchez. 


What are the Rivers of Mississippi ? m. y. b. r. p. t. 
What Town on the Mississippi? n. — What Town near 
Natchez ? w. — What 2 Towns near the southern boundary ? 
w. l. — What 3 Towns on the Pearl river? j. m. c. — What 
2 Towns on the Tombigbee ? n. c. — What Missionary sta- 
tion near the Yazoo river ? e. — What College in Mississippi ? 
What Indians in the northern part of the state ? What In- 
dians in the eastern part ? In what direction from Jackson 
is New Orleans ? Tuscaloosa ? Tallahasse ? Arkopolis ? 
Philadelphia? Savannah? How can you sail from Jack- 
son to Nashville ? 


TENNESSEE. 

How is Tennessee bounded ? What is its Capital ? 


NORTH AMERICA. 


99 


Tennessee is one of the most healthful, pleas- 
ant, and beautiful states in the Union. 

The Cumberland mountains divide the state 
into two parts. The eastern part is mountain- 
ous ; the western is generally level. 

It has a rich, and fertile soil, especially on the 
rivers ; and a mild and healthy climate. The 
spring is about six weeks earlier here than in New 
England. The northeasterly winds are never 
felt in Tennessee, and seldom the northwest. 

The principal productions are cotton , tobacco , 
wheat , hemp , and maize. 

Towns. — Nashville is situated on the Cumberland riv- 
er, in the midst of a fertile and populous country. It is the 
largest and most flourishing town in the state. Population 
about 6,000. 

Knoxville, the principal town in the eastern part of Ten- 
nessee, is situated on the Holston, 22 miles above its junc- 
tion with the Tennessee river. Pop. 2,000. 


What are the Rivers of Tennessee ? m. t. c. — What moun- 
tains pass through this State ? c. — What Mountains sepa- 
rate Tennessee from North Carolina ? a. — What 3 Towns' on 
the Cumberland River ? c. n. c. — -What 3 Towns in the 
eastern part of the state, on the Tennessee and its branches ? 
k. g. s. — What Missionary station on the Tennessee ? u. — 
What 5 Towns between the Tennessee and Cumberland riv- 
ers? m. m. s. m. w. — What Town in the southwestern corner 
of the state on the Mississippi? m. — What 3 Towns between 
the Tennessee and Mississippi? j. h. r. — How many miles in 
length is the Tennessee ? Cumberland ? Mississippi ? What 
Colleges in Tennessee? How will you sail from Nashville 
to Frankfort ? 


KENTUCKY* 

How is Kentucky bounded ? What is its Capital ? 


The southeastern part of Kentucky is moun- 
tainous ; the northern is broken and hilly ; the 


100 


NORTH AMERICA. 


remainder is mostly level. The climate is mild 

%> 

and healthy ; and the soil is rich and fertile. 

The principal productions are wheat , maize , 
tobacco , and hemp . Apples and peaches are 

abundant. 

There are numerous salt springs in this state, 
from which are manufactured large quantities of 
salt . 

Nearly the whole of Kentucky rests on a bed of lime-stone, 
six or eight feet below the surface. Through the apertures 
in this limestone, streams frequently sink into the earth and 
entirely disappear. 

There are many remains of ancient fortifications and 
mounds in this state ; and in Big Bone valley, 29 miles S. 
W. of Newport, have been discovered many bones of the 
Mammoth, of an enormous size. 

There are numerous caves in Kentucky ; one called Mon- 
mouth cave, near Green river, has been explored to the dis- 
tance of 10 miles. From the earth at the bottom of these 
caves, are manufactured vast quantities of saltpetre. 

Towns . — Frankfort is situated on the Kentucky river, 60 
miles from its mouth. It is a pleasant and beautiful town. 
Pop. about 2,000. 

Lexington is situated on a small branch of the Elk horn 
river, 22 miles S. E. of Frankfort, in the most fertile part of 
the state. It is distinguished for the rapid increase of its 
population, its extensive manufactures, and for the politeness 
and hospitality of its inhabitants. Pop. 6,000. 

Louisville is the greatest commercial town in the state, 
and the second in size. Pop. 4, COO. [Louisville is situated 
on the Ohio river, nearly west of Frankfort, marked L. on 
the map.] 


What are the Rivers of Kentucky ? m. o. t. c. g. *s. k. l. 
b-s. — What Mountains ana RiVer separate Kentucky from 
Virginia? What Town on the- -Mississippi ? c. — What Town 
on the Cumberland river ? jj. — What town on a branch of 
the Cumberland ? c. — What Town near the mouth of the 
Cumberland river? s.-What3 Towns on the Ohio ? l. n.m.- 


* The river between Green aud Kentucky rivers is called 
Salt river. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


101 


What Town on a branch of the Green river ? b-g. — What 
2 Towns near the Green river ? a. h. — What Town on Salt 
River? b. — What 3 Towns S. E. of Bardstown? n. Mt-v.M. 
— What Town on the Kentucky river ? f. — What 3 Towns 
between the Kentucky and Licking riveis ? l. p. v. — What 
is the length of the Ohio river ? Licking ? What Colleges 
in Kentucky and where are they located? When, and by 
whom was Kentucky settled ? How will you sail from 
Frankfort to Columbus ? 


OHIO. 

IIow is Ohio bounded ? What is its Capital? 

About one quarter of the state declines to lake 
Erie ; the remainder to the Ohio. The northern 
part is level, and frequently marshy ; the south- 
ern part presents a varied surface, and is ex- 
tremely rich and productive. 

Owing to the fertility of the soil, and the mild- 
ness of the climate, the population of Ohio lias 
increased more rapidly, than that of any other ol 
the western states ; and in agriculture, manufac- 
tures, and commerce, it surpasses several of those 
lying on the Atlantic. 

r idie chief productions are wheat , maize , nje , 
barley , oats and hemp . In the south-eastern part 
of the state are extensive mines of pit-coal , and 

in the interiour, are numerous salt-springs. 

Towns. — Columbus is pleasantly situated on the Sciota 
near the centre of the state. It has had a rapid growth. 
It was laid out in 1812, and the present population is about 
3,000. 

Cincinnati is the largest, and one of the most flourishing 
towns, except New Orleans, in the western states. It is 
regularly laid out, and is extensively engaged in commerce 
and manufactures. Pop. 21,000. 

What 3 rivers empty into Lake Erie? m. s. c. [The 
River which empties into Lake Erie at Cleaveland is the 
Cayahoga.l What 4 Rivers empty into the Ohio ? M. ii.* 

0 * 


102 


NORTH AMERICA. 


s. m. — [*The River between the Muskingum and Sciota 
is Hockhocking.] What 4 Towns are situated on the 
Ohio ? c. g. m. s. — What 2 Towns on the Miami ? d. g. — 
What 3 Towns on the Sciota ? c. c. c. What 2 Towns on 
the Hochocking ? l. a. — What 2 Towns on the Musking- 
hum ? w. z. What Town N. of Wooster? m. — What 
Town on Lake Erie at the mouth of the Cayahoga river ? 
c. — What Town on the Cayahoga ? r. — W hat Town S. of 
Ravenna ? c. — What Town in the N. E. part of the State ? 
j. — What Town on Sandusky bay at the mouth of Sandusky 
river ? s. — What Town S. of Sandusky ? m. — What Town 
on the Maumee river ? d. — What College in Ohio ? What 
Canals in Ohio, and what do they connect ? [See page 58.] 
How will you sail from Columbus to Indianopolis ? 


INDIANA. 

How is ^Indiana bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

The northern part of Indiana is level, and 
abounds in extensive and fertile prairies ; the 
southern part near the Ohio, is generally uneven 
or hilly. 

The soil is uncommonly fertile, producing 
wheat , maize , rye , oats , hemp , flax, fyc. in great 
abundance. 

In the vicinity of Vevay the vine is successful- 
ly cultivated by some Swiss settlers, and several 
hundred gallons of wine are annually made. 

Towns. — Indianopolis is situated on the west branch of 
White River. It is a flourishing town, and is noted for the 
rapid increase of its population. It was laid out in 1821. 
Pop. 600. 

Vincennes is finely situated on the Wabash, 200 miles from 
its mouth. It is the largest town in the state, and is a place 
of considerable trade. Pop. 1,500. 

What are the Rivers of Indiana ? w. w. o. m. What 2 
Towns on the Wabash ? v. h. — What 3 Towns on the Ohio ? 


*In-je-an'-na. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


103 


r. c. v. — What Town on Indian creek S. W. of Charleston ? 
c. — What 7’own in the east branch of White river ? c. — 
What 2 Towns in the eastern part? j. c. — What Fort on 
the Maumee ? w. — What College in this state ? flow will 
you sail from Indianopolis to Vandalia? 


ILLINOIS. 

How is Illinois bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Illinois is generally a level and fertile state ; 
and is distinguished for its vast and extensive 
prairies. 

The climate is temperate, and in many parts 
unhealthy. The principal productions are wheat, 
rye , maize , oats, and hemp ; and in the southern 
part, cotton and vines . 

Among the minerals, are coal , iron , and copper . 
Salt springs are also numerous. 

Towns. — Vandalia is a newly settled town. It was laid 
out in 1819, and has had a rapid increase. Pop. GOO. 

Kaskaskia and Cahokia were settled by the French, nearly 
100 years since, and are flourishing towns. 


What 7 Rivers in Illinois ? w. o. r. k. m. t. s. — What 3 
Towns on the Mississippi ? a. a. c. — How is Vandalia 
situated ? What Town on the Kaskaskia river, 1 1 miles 
from its mouth ? k. — What town on Illinois river? r. — 

4 

What Town near the Illinois river ? l. — What Town on a 
branch of the Sangamon ? s. — What 3 Towns in the eastern 
part of the state ? p. a. y. — What two Towns in the southern 
part ? s. a. — What Town on L. Michigan ? c. — What ex- 
tensive Prairie in the eastern part of Illinois ? Which is the 
longest river, the Connecticut or Illinois ? How far is Van- 
dalia from Hartford? Roston? How will you sail from 
Vandalia to Jefferson City ? 

MISSOURI. 

How is Missouri bounded ? What is its Capital. 

Missouri is uneven or hilly, in the northern 
part ; and in the southern, it is intersected by a 


104 


NORTH AMERICA. 


portion of the Ozark mountains. The remainder 
is generally level. 

The climate is mild and healthy, and the soil 
extremely fertile, especially on the rivers. 

Missouri is distinguished for its inexhaustible 
mines of lead . There are numerous salt springs 
from which are manufactured large quantities of 
salt . Coal is found in abundance. 

The chief productions are wheat , maize, rye, 
cotton, fyc . — The principal exports are lead and 
furs . 

Jefferson City is a newly settled town, on the Mis- 
souri river 120 miles above its junction with the Mississippi. 
It is situated on a high, bluff shore, 100 feet above tho sur- 
face of the river, and is surrounded by a beautiful and fertile 
country. It was laid out in 1822, and in 1826, it was made 
the seat of government. Pop. 300; 

St. Louis is pleasantly situated on the Mississippi 18 miles 
below the mouth of the Missouri, and 1200 miles above New 
Orleans. It is a flourishing place and is better situated for 
commerce than any other inland town on the globe. Pop 
5,000. 

What are the principal Rivers of Missouri ? m. o. m. 

What 2 rivers rise in the southern part of the state ? b-b. and 
St. f.— What mountains in Missouri? o. — What 6 Towns 
on the Missouri river ? b. Mt-v. f. b. j. St-c. — What 6 

Towns on the Mississippi ? l. St-L. h. St-G. j. and n-m. 

What Town on St. Francis’ river? g. — W hat College in 
Missouri ? How far is it from St. Louis to Plartford? When 
was Missouri settled ? How many square miles has it ? 
Which is the largest, Missouri or Georgia ? How will you 
sail from Jefferson City to Detroit ? 

TERRITORIES OF THE UNITED STATES. 

How many Territories belong to the United States ? 
Which is the most southern ? Which is the most western 
Territory ? Which territory extends farthest east ? Which 
is the largest Territory? Which is the smallest? Which 
extends farthest north ? o. 

. \ 


NORTH AMERICA. 


105 


The Territories of the United States are of two kinds. — 
The first kind includes those districts in whicli civilized set- 
tlements have commenced, but the number of inhabitants 
being less than 60,000, (which entitles them to form a con- 
stitution for themselves, and to send members to Congress,) 
— the)' are governed by a provisional legislature, and a Gov- 
ernor, who is appointed by t.he President of the United States. 
They can send a delegate to Congress, who has a right to 
speak, but not to vote.— There are three territories of this 
description ; viz. Florida, Michigan, and Arkansas. — The 
second kind includes those tracts of country, over which the 
United States claim the right of sovereignty, though inhabi- 
ted only by Indians. There arc three of this kind, viz. 
North West Territory, Missouri Territory, and Oregon Ter- 
ritory. 


# MICTIIGAN TERRITORY. 

How is Michigan Territory bounded ? Its Capital ? 


Michigan is generally a level, and fertile Ter- 
ritory with a cold, but healthy climate. 

The principal productions, are wheat , maize , 
oats , barley , peas, apples , pears , and grapes. 

Toivns . — Detroit is pleasantly situated on Detroit river., 
between lake Erie and lake St. Clair. It is a place of con- 


siderable trade, and is rapidly increasing in population. Pop. 
3,000. 


f Michilimackinack is an important military post, situated 
on an island of the same name in the straits of Michilimack- 
inack, 300 miles N. W. of Detroit. It is the grand Jdepot of 
the Canadian fur traders. Pop. 800. 


What 4 Lakes border on Michigan Territory ? What is 
the length, and breadth of lake Michigan ? [See page 59.] 
lake Huron ? Erie ? What is the circumference of lake St. 
Clair ? What 2 Bays in Michigan Territory ? s. and g-t. 
What 2 Towns on Saginaw river which empties into Sagi- 
naw Bay ? s. b. — What town 25 miles west of L. St Clair ? 
p. — What Town on Detroit River ? What 2 Towns on L. 
Erie? b. f. — What Town S. W. of Frenchtown ? t. — What 
Town on St. Joseph’s river ? c. — What Indians in the west- 


*Mish-e-gan\ 


t Mack'e-naw. 


t Dey-po'* 


106 


NORTH AMERICA. 


cm r •'“* ' V the Territory? When, where, and by whom, 
Vn Territory settled ? What is the length of 
-i St. Clair ? Detroit River ? How v/ill you sail 

-■* Detroit to Green Bay Settlement? 

NORTH WEST TERRITORY. 

How is North West Territory bounded ? 

North West Territory is inhabited principally 
by Indians. The northern part is hilly and 
mountainous, with a light barren soil ; the re- 
mainder is generally level and fertile. 

Near lake Superior are numerous mines of 
iron, copper , and lead , of the richest quality. 

There are few settlements in this territory ; the 
chief are # Prairie du Chien, and Green bay set- 
tlements. 

The climate is severe in winter, but mild in 

summer, and in most parts healthy. 

What River empties into Green Bay ? What 4 into the 
Mississippi ? r. c. b. w. — What Falls in the Mississippi riv- 
er ? W hat 3 Tribes of Indians in N. W . Territory ? What 
Mines near L. Superior ? What in the southern part ? How 
will you sail from Prairie du Chien to Arkopolis ? 

ARKANSAS TERRITORY. 

How is Arkansas Territory bounded ? Its Capital ? 

The eastern part of Arkansas Territory is level 
and marshy, and has a warm, moist, unhealthy 
climate. The western consists chiefly of im- 
mense prairies. The middle is mountainous, 
healthful, and pleasant. — The land bordering on 
the rivers, has a rich fertile soil, producing wheat , 
maize , rice , cotton , and tobacco. 

There are numerous salt springs in this territory ; and 
about 150 miles N. W. of Arkansas, are a number of medi- 
cinal springs, celebrated for the heat of their water, which is 
sufficient, at most times, to boil eggs. 

* Pra 're-du Sheen. 


I 


NORTH AMERICA. 107 

Wild animals are numerous. Buffaloes or Bisong , Elks, 
Deer, and Wild Horses are seen feeding in vast herds on the 
prairies. 

Arkopolis, formerly called Little Rock, is pleas- 
antly situated on the Arkansas river, 3')U miles from its 
mouth. The settlement was commenced in 1820, and is ra- 
pidly increasing in population. Pop. 600. 

Arkansas is situated on the Arkansas river 60 miles from 
its mouth. It contains about 800 inhabitants, most of whom 
are descendants of French and Indians. 


What Rivorforms the boundary between Arkansas Territo- 
ry and Mexico ? r.- -What 2 branches has the Red R. ? w. and 
f-w. — What 3 Rivers empty into the Mississippi? a. w. and 
St-F. What large branch has the Arkansas river? c. — What 
2 branchos has the Canadian River? n. an d s-f.— What 
branch has the White River? b-b. — W hat Mountains extend 
through the middle of Arkansas Territory ? o. — What 5 
Towns on the Arkansas river? a. s. c. a. m.— What Town on 
the Mississippi? v. — What Town on White river? b. — What 
Town on Big Black River? n. — What Missionary station in 
the northern part, among the Osage Indians? u. — What 
Desert extends into the western part of Arkansas Territory? 
When, where, and by whom was Arkansas Territory first 
settled ? How will you sail from Arkopolis to the Military 
station at Council BlufF? 

MISSOURI TERRITORY. 



Indians catching Biff aloes. 


108 


NOHTH AMERICA. 


How is Missouri Territory bounded ? 

Missouri Territory extends from the Missis- 
sippi river to the Rocky Mountains, embracing 
about 800,000 square miles. It is a vast wilder- 
ness, and with the exception of a few military 
posts, is inhabited entirely by Indians. 

The soil in the western part, and on the banks 
of the rivers, is extremely rich and fertile ; the 
remainder, is generally a vast, elevated and bar- 
ren waste, destitute of timber and vegetation. 

Wild animals are extremely numerous, and no country 
produces game in greater abundance than the banks of the 
Missouri and Arkansas rivers. Several thousand Buffaloes 
are frequently seen in one drove. The Indians take them in 
vast numbers, by driving them into inclosures, or over a pre- 
cipice. 


Which is the largest River in the Missouri Territory ? 
What is its length ? What 3 Rivers unite and form the Mis- 
souri ? j. m. g. — What are the 5 principal branches of the 
Missouri on the N. side ? m. j. s. l-p. g. What are the 9 
principal branches on the S. side? y. l-m. s. s. w. q,. p. k. o. 
— What 2 Rivers unite and form the Platte river ? What is 
the length of each ? What is the length of the Konzas and 
its longest branch ? What 3 branches has the Mississippi N. 
of the Missouri ? In what Lake does the Mississippi rise ? 
What River rises in Red Lake and runs north into Lake 
Winnipeg ? r. — What Falls in the Mississippi? What Fort 
at the Falls of St. Anthony ? What Mountains separate Mis- 
souri Territory from Oregon Territory ? What Hills be- 
tween the Yellowstone and Missouri rivers ? What exten- 
sive Desert in Missouri Territory ?' By what is it traversed, 
and by what is it inhabited ? What extensive Prairie between 
the Missouri and Mississippi rivers ? W T hat Indians between 
the Missouri and Mississippi rivers ? s. i. — What tribe of 
Indians in the N. W. part, on Maria’s river ? What 3 Tribes 
on the Missouri ? m. r. s. — What Tribe on the Platte river ? 
p.-What tribe on the Konzas River ? K.-What tribe between 
the Osage and Arkansas river ? o. — What Mountains must 
you cross in travelling from Missouri Territory into Oregon 
Territory / 


NORTH AMERICA. 


109 


OREGON TERRITORY. 

How is Oregon Territory bounded ? 

Oregon Territory extends from the Rocky 
Mountains on the east, to the Pacific on the west ; 
and from the Russian Possessions on the north, 
to Mexico on the south. 

The soil is generally fertile, producing various 
kinds of pines, some of which grow to the height 
of 300 feet. 

The climate is healthy, and milder than in the 
same latitude on the Atlantic. 

Astoria is an American settlement on the Columbia river, 
18 miles from its mouth. It is settled principally by fur tra- 
ders. 

The number of Indians in this territory is supposed to be 

80 , 000 . 


Which is the principal River in Oregon Territory ? What 
is the length of the Columbia river ? What are the three 
principal branches of the Columbia? c. L. m. — W hat Gulf in 
the western part of Oregon Territory ? What Island between 
the Gulf of Georgia and the Pacific? What Sound W. of 
Vancouver’s Island ? What Ray N. of the mouth of Colum- 
bia river ? What 7 Capes on the Pacific? p. n. l . f. p. g. o. 
What names have been given to the highest summits of the 
Mountains in the western part ? b. ii j. — What 5 7’ribes 
of Indians? s. e. e, c. k. — What Lake in the eastern part? 
w. — What Lake extends into the S. E. part? t. — How will 
you sail from Astoria to Acapulco? 


ABORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF AMERICA. 

When America was first discovered by Europeans, it was 
a vast wilderness, inhabited by an ignorant, barbarous and 
warlike people, whose principal employment was hunting, 
fishing, and war. They understood but few of the arts, and 
had neither books nor manuscripts. Their literary attain- 
ments consisted only of a few Hieroglyphics, tear songs , and 
traditionary tales , handed down from lather to son. There- 
fore respecting their origin, migrations, orsettlemento on this 

10 


110 


NORTH AMERICA. 


continent, nothing could be learned with any degree of cer- 
tainty. 

The * aborigines consisted of several different nations, or 
tribes, and by the Europeans were named Indians , the whole 
country at the time of its discovery, having received the in- 
definite appellation of West Indies. 

Since the settlement of America by Europeans, the In- 
dians have been gradually destroyed by wars and new dis- 
eases, till but a small portion of their original number re- 
mains. 

The present number of Indians in the territories of the 
United States is estimated at 470,000, a majority of whom 
inhabit the country west of the Mississippi. They are, in 
general, of a large size, of a robust frame, and a well propor- 
tioned figure, free from defects of organization, and are dis- 
tinguished for bravery and native eloquence. 

Each of the different tribes is under the government of a 
chief and council, who are elected to office on account of 
their military talents, wisdom and experience. 

Of all the independent tribes in the territories of the Uni- 
ted States, the tSioux are the most warlike and powerful. 
They are divided into several tribes, and are the terror of the 
savage hordes from the river St. Peter’s to the mouth of the 
Mississippi. 

The Principal tribes within the United States are the 
Chickasaws, Choctaws, Cherokees, and Creeks. These 
tribes have made considerable progress, in agriculture, and 
the mechanic arts. They have cultivated fields , gardens , in- 
closures , herds of cattle , and different kinds of domestic manu- 
factures. 

Missionary schools have been established among these 
tribes, at which hundreds have received the rudiments of 
education, and adopted the industrious habits of American 
citizens. 


Questions on the Map of the United States. 

What tribe of Indians inhabit the mutual boundaries of 
Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee ? c. — What Missionary 
station in the N. W. part of Georgia ? e. In the southern 
part of Tennessee ? b. — What Indians fn the western part 
of Florida? s. — What 2 Tribes in Mississippi? c. c.— What 


*Ab-o-rige'e-nees. 


tSi'ooze. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Ill 


Tribe in Michigan Territory ? o. — What 3 Tribes in N. W. 
Territory? c. m. w. — What Tribes in Missouri Territory ? 
e-f. m. r. s. p. k. o. i. s. — What 5 Tribes in Oregon Territo- 
ry ? s. e. e. c. k What is the probable number of Indians 

in the United States and Territories ? A. 470,000. Which 
is the most powerful and warlike of all the independent 
tribes ? s. 


GENERAL QUESTIONS ON TILE MAP OF TIIE U. STATES. 

What States have no access to the ocean by water ? 
What State is nearly equally divided by a bay ? 

What 3 States are nearly equally divided by rivers ? 
What 2 Territories are separated by a lake ? 


Through what must the waters of the Alleghany pass to 
reach the ocean ? Waters of L. George ? 

How do the waters ofL. Superior reach the ocean ? 

How do the waters of the Monongahela? 

Through what must the waters of the Yellowstone pass 
to reach the ocean ? W aters of Fox river ? 


What 8 States taketheir names from their principal rivers ? 
What 2 States take their names from adjacent bays ? 
What State takes its name from its mountains ? 

What State takes its name from its principal island ? 

What River divides two states and passes through tvv° 
others ? 

What State has the greatest number of lakes in and around 
it? 


How will you go from Hartford to New Orleans by water 
through the United States ? 

How will you go from Hartford to York in Upper Canada 
by water ? 

How will you sail from Hartford to Detroit ? 

From Detroit to Montreal ? 

From Montreal to Harrisburg ? 

From Harrisburg to Pittsburg ? 

From Pittsburg to Providence ? 

From Providence to Philadelphia ? 

From Philadelphia to Washington ? 

What Rivers will you cross in travelling on the coast from 
New Orleans to Eastport ? 


112 


NORTH AMERICA. 


I 


Which State has the greatest number of rivers in it ? 
Which State has the least number in it ? 

What is the general course of the rivers in the United 
States ? 

What 5 States have rivers that run a northerly course ? 

In what Territory do the Rivers run a southeasterly 
course ? 


Which is the largest City in the Eastern States ? 
Which is the largest City in the Middle States ? 
Which is the largest City in the Southern States ? 
Which is the largest City in the Western States ? 


* Which is the largest city in the United States? 

1. Mention the six next in the order of their population. 

2. Mention the six next in the order of their population. 

3. Mention the six next in the order of their population. 

4. Mention the six.next in the same manner. 


Which Lake has the greatest elevation above the head of 
tide water ? [See page 59.] 

Which State has the greatest number of Colleges ? 

Which State is most distinguished for its Canals ? 


t The Initials of certain Towns in the United States spell 
your name ; which are they, and how are they situated ? 

The Initials of certain Towns in the United States form 
the sentence ; Washington was the father of his coun- 
try ; what are their names, and where are they situated ? 


* The scholar should write them down, and annex the 
population of each. This, I have found by experience, is the 
most definite, and the most useful classification that has yet 
been devised. 

t These Towns should be written off by the scholar. 


NORTH AMERICA 


113 


MEXICO. 



Pyramid of Cliolula. 

How is Mexico bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Q. To whom did Mexico formerly belong ? 

A. To Spain. It was conquered in 1521, by 
Fernando Cortez, and remained a Spanish prov- 
ince, till 1821, when it became independent. 

Q. What is its length and breadth ? 

A. It is about 1820 miles in length, and on a 
medium 800 miles in breadth, containing 1,000,- 
000 square miles. 

Q. What is the population ? 

A. It is computed to be 8,500,000, principally 
in the southern part ; the northern being inhabi- 
ted almost entirely by Indians in a savage state.. 

Q. What is the face of the country ? 

A. The land on both coasts is low ; but it rises 
gradually as you approach the interiour, to the 
height of 6 or 8,000 feet, when it spreads out in- 
to extensive plains, called ‘ table lands,’ which 
are 1,700 miles in length. 


114 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Q. What is the climate ? 

A. On the coast it is hot, and sickly ; in the 
interiour it is cool and healthy. 

Q. What is the soil and productions ? 

A. The soil, in most parts, is extremely fertile, 
producing maize , wheat, sugar, indigo, tobacco, 
cotton, logwood, mahogany , and various kinds of 
tropical fruits. 

Q. For what has Mexico been celebrated . 5 

A. For its rich and extensive mines of gold 
and silver, which produce annually about 20 mil- 
ions of dollars. The three principal mines are 
*Guanaxuato, Zacatecas and fCatorce. 

Q. By whom was Mexico formerly inhabited ? 

A. Before Mexico was conquered by the Spaniards, it was 
inhabited by a brave and w T arlike people, who were acquain- 
ted with many of the arts, and had made considerable advan- 
ces in civilization. Many remains of their monuments and 
buildings still exist. The most celebrated among them is 
the Pyramid of Cholula, 70 miles E. of Mexico. It consists 
of 4 stories or terrace s ; and is 177 feet high, and 1,423 feet 
broad. It is built of unburnt bricks. On the top of the 
Pyramid, was a temple in which they offered human sacrifi- 
sea to the sun. 

Towr s. — Mexico is the most ancient, and one of the most 
populous cities in America. Jt is situated near lake Tezcuco, 
in a delightful valley, which is 230 miles in circumference, 
and elevated more than 7,000 feet above the level of the 
ocean. It is regularly built in the form of a square, of 4 
miles on each side. It is distinguished for the width and 
regularity of its streets, the splendour of its publick edifices, 
and for its mint, which is the richest in the world. Pop. 
150, COO. 

Guanaxuato is a large and flourishing city, 150 miles N. 
W. of Mexico. The ground on which the city is built, is 
about 7,000 feet above the level of the sea. It is distinguish- 
ed for its gold and silver mines. Pop. 32,000. 

£ Puebla is situated on a large plain, 70 miles S. E. of Mex- 
ico. I'lie city is regularly laid out, and contains many ele- 


* Gwah-na-kwali'to 


t Ca-tor'ce. 


+ Poo-a'bla. 


NORTH AMERICA. 


115 


gant buildings. The ground on which it stands is elevated 
more than 7000 feet above the level of the ocean. It is fa- 
mous for its manufactures of earthen ware, iron, and steel. 
Pop. 60,000. 

*Zacatecas is situated in a mountainous country, 240 miles 
N. W. of Mexico. It is one of the most celebrated mining 
places in Mexico. Pop. 33,000. 

Vera Cruz, the principal port on the Gulf of Mexico, is a 
place of great trade. It is unhealthy, and has a poor har- 
bour. Pop. 16,000. 

Acapulco is the principal port on the Pacific. It is distin- 
guished for its excellent harbour, but it is a miserable un- 
healthy town. Pop. 4000. 


Which arc the 4 principal Rivers emptying into the Gulf 
of California ? c. g. h. c — What 1 into the Pacific ? g. 
What are the 4 principal Rivers emptying into the Gulf of 
Mexico ? b. c. b. t. — What 2 Peninsulas in Mexico ? c. y. 
What 2 Towns on the Peninsula of Yucatan ? m. c. — What 
3 Towns on the Ray of Campeachy ? v-c. a. v-ii. — What 
Town S. W. of Vera Hermosa ? tc. — What Town on the 
Gulf of Mexico at the mouth of the river Tula ? t. — What 
8 Towns on the Pacific? p-St.-F. m. s-b. s-n. x. z. a. t. 
What Town N. W. of Te-hu-an'te-pee ? o. — What 6 Towns 
around Mexico in different directions ? g. t. v-c. l-p. a. v. 
What Town N. of Guanaxuato? s-l-p. — What 4 Towns 
near the tropic of Cancer ? z. r. d. St. -a. — What 4 Towns 
between the Gulf of California and the Cordilleras Moun- 
tains ? m. a. s. s. — What 6 Towns between the Cordilleras 
and Rio del Norte? n. s. l. n. c. v. — What 4 Towns on the 
Rio del Norte ? s. a. m. l — W hat Town N. E. of Monclo- 
va? s- \ , — W'hat 2 Lakes in the Northern part of Mexico ? 
s. t. — W hat Lake in the southern part ? c. — What moun- 
tains in Mexico ? c. — Where is the Volcano of ifPopocata- 
petl ? A. In the southern part of Mexico, between Oaxaca 
and La Puebla. How high is Popocatapetl ? 


GUATEMALA. 

How is Guatimala bounded ? \\ liat is its Capital ? 


j Q. To whom did Guatimala formerly belong? 


*Zak-a-te'-cas. 


tChe-a'-pa. !fPo-po kat-a-pel. 


116 


NORTH AMERICA. 


A. To Spain. It was conquered and settled 
soon after Mexico by the Spaniards, in whose 
power it remained till 1823, when it became in- 
dependent. 

Q. What is the face of the country and climate ? 

A. It is low, swampy, and unhealthy on the 
coasts ; in the interiour it is mountainous, and 
has a mild and salubrious climate. It contains 
more than 20 volcanoes which are constantly 
burning. Eruptions and earthquakes are com- 
mon. 

Q. What can you say of the soil and productions ? 

A. The soil is extremely fertile, producing all 
kinds of tropical fruits, grain, cotton, fyc. The 
bay of Honduras is celebrated for its logwood 
and mahogany . 

Q. What is the extent and population of Guatimala ? 

A. It contains 300,000 square miles, and about 
1,800,000 inhabitants who are mostly Indians. 

Towns . — Guatimala. is situated near the Pacific, and has 
a good harbour. It is *a beautiful and magnificent place 
adorned with numerous churches and monasteries. It con- 
tains a university and about 20,000 inhabitants. 

Leon is pleasantly situated on Lake Leon. It is a pleasant 
town, containing about 10,000 inhabitants. 


What Lake in Guatimala ? n. — What River is the outlet 
of L. Nicaragua? St.-j. — What Bay in the northern part ? 
a. — What Town near Amatique bay ? v-p. — What Seaport 
in the northern part? *t. — What Town in the interiour ? c. 
What 2 towns on the Pacific ? g. and s-m. — What town on 
L. Leon N. W. of L. Nicaragua ? l. — What town in the 
southern part ? .c.-—To what government does the Province 
of tPanaina belong ? 

A. To the Republic of Colombia. 


*Tru-kecl'-yo. 


fPan-a-mah'. 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


117 


WEST INDIES. 



Slaves at Work . 

Where do the West Indies lie ? 


Q. How are the West Indies divided ? 

A. Into the Great and Little Antilles, Baha- 
mas, and Caribbean Islands. With the excep- 
tion of Ilayti or St. Domingo, they all belong to 
some of the European powers ; chiefly to Great 
Britain, France and Spain. 

Q. What is the Climate ? 

A. In winter, it is mild and delightful ; in sum- 
mer it is extremely hot and unhealthy. 

Q. How are the seasons divided ? 

A. Into wet and dry . These islands are sub- 
ject to dreadful hurricanes during the months of 
August and September which frequently do ex- 
tensive injury. Eathquakes , violent thunder and 
lightning are also common. 

Q. What is the soil, and principal productions ? 

A. The soil of most of the islands, is extreme- 
ly fertile, producing sugar , coffee, cotton , indigo , 
cocoa , ginger , allspice , tyc. The principal fruits 
are oranges , lemons , limes . pine apples and figs. 




118 


NORTH AMERICA. 


Q. What is the population of all the West India Islands ? 

A. About 2 , 450 , 000 , of whom three-fourths are 
slaves. 


A TABULAR VIEW OF THE PRINCIPAL WEST INDIA ISLANDS. 

Bahamas . 


Bahama 

Providence 

Turks 

*Guanahani 


| Belonging to \ Sq. Mi. | Pop. \ Chf. Totem. 


G. Britain. 


5500 

15000 



* 



Nassau. 


Great Antilles . 


Cuba 

Spain 

50000 

620000 

Havannah 

tHayti 

Independent 

28000 

65O0UO 

Cape Henry 

Jamaica 

G. Britain 

6400 

360000 

Kingston 

Porto Rico 

Spain 

4000 

225000 

St. Juan 


Garibbean Inlands. 


| Belonging to | Sq. Mi. | Pop. | Chief Towns. 


Trinidad 

G. Britain 

1700 

25000 

Port of Spain 

Gaudaloupe 

France 

675 

115000 

Basse Terre 

Martinique 

France 

370 

95000 

St. Pierree 

St. Lucia 

G. Britain 

225 

16000 

Carenage 

Barbadoes 

G. Britain 

166 

93000 

Bridgetown 

Tobago 

G. Britain 

140 

16000 

Scarborough 

St. Vincent 

G. Britain 

130 

23000 

Kingston 

Grenada 

G. Britain 

110 

31000 

St. George 

Santa Cruz 

Denmark 

100 

31000 

Santa Cruz 

Antigua 

G. Britain 

93 

36000 

St. John’s 

Tortola 

G. Britain 

90 

11000 

Road Harbor 

St. Thomas 

Denmark 

40 

5000 

St. Thomas 


Which is the most northern group of the West India Isl- 
ands ? b. — Which is the most northern Island ? a. — Which 
is the most eastern of the West India Islands ? b. — Which is 
the most southern Island? t. — Which is the most western ? 
c. — What 4 Towns on the island of Cuba? h. m. St. s. St. 
j. — To whom does Cuba belong? What is its population ? 


* The first land discovered by Columbus, Oct. 12, 1492. 
t Formerly called Hispaniola, or St. Domingo. 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


119 


Its Capital ? What 3 Towns in Hayti ? c-h. p-p. s-d. — What 
is its population ? Capital ? To whom does Jamaica belong? 
Its Capital ? To whom does Porto Rico belong ? What is 
its Capital ? What cluster of Islands lie about midway be- 
tween Porto Rico and Nova Scotia ? u. 


General Questions on the Map of North America. 

What is the length of the Gulf of Mexico? Caribbean 
Sea ? Hudson’s Bay ? Gulf of California ? 

What is the length of the Rocky Mountains? Allegany 
Mountains ? Cordilleras ? How high is Popocatapetl ? 
Plow Wide is the Atlantic Ocean ? How wide is the Pacific 
Ocean ? 


South Amenta. 



South American Indians. 

Q. What is the extent of South America? 

A. It extends from the straits of Magellan, to 
the isthmus of Darien, being 4600 miles in 
length, and 3,000 miles in its extreme width ; 
containing about 7,000,000 square miles. 


120 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


t 


Q,. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude does 
it lie ? 

A. Between 54° S. latitude and 12° N. lati- 
tude ; and between 35° 45' and 81 Q 6' W. longi- 
tude. 

Q. For what is South America distinguished ? 

A. For the fertility of its soil, the size and gran- 
deur of its rivers, and the height and extent of 
its mountains. Its rich and extensive mines of 
gold , silver , platina , mercury and diamonds ex- 
cel those of any other part of the globe. 

Its soil produces many valuable plants and 
shrubs which are found in no other country. 

Q. Which is the principal chain of mountains 

A. The Andes, which extend the whole length 
of South America. The highest peak of the An- 
des is Chimborazo, 100 miles S. W. of Quito. It 
is more than 4 miles high above the level of the 
sea. There are numerous volcanoes among the 
Andes. The most celebrated among them is 
Cotopaxi 40 miles- S. E. of Quito. It is 3^ miles 
high, being much the loftiest volcano on the globe. 

Q,. What can you say of the inhabitants of S. America ? 

A. They are composed of various races : as Whites , civili- 
zed and Independent Indians , Negroes, Mestizoes, Mulaltoes , 
and Samboes. [The Mestizoes are the descendents of the 
whites and Indians ; and the Samboes of Indians and Ne- 
groes.] The majority of the population consists of Indians, 
who are subject to the whites, many of whom are in the most 
abject state of slavery. 

Q. What is the character of the Spaniards and Portu- 
guese ? 

A. The higher classes are generally well educated and 
wealthy, but dissolute in their morals. The lower classes 
are ignorant, rude and superstitious. 

Q. What is the character of the Independent Indians ? 

A. They are brave, intelligent, industrious and warlike, 
and generally more civilized than those of North America. 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


121 


Q. What is the state of education ? 

A. Since the Provinces have become independent, great 
attention has been given to education. Several universities 
have been founded, and information has been extensively 
diffused by means of books and newspapers. 

Q. Which are the most distinguished animals in South 
America ? 

A. The Jaguar or American Tiger, the Llama or Peru- 
vian Camel, and the Vicuna or Peruvian sheep. 

Q. Which is the most remarkable bird of South America? 

A. The Condor, which is the largest bird known that has 
the power of flying. It soars to the height of 20,000 feet, 
and preys upon calves , goats and sheep , and has been known 
to carry off children 10 years of age. Its wings when exten- 
ded measure from 12 to 16 feet, and the greater quills are 
about 3 feet in length. 


SOUTH AMERICA. 

How is South America bounded ? 


Colombia ? 
Guiana ? 
Peru ? 
Brazil ? 
Bolivia ? 


Capital? Chief Towns? 
Capitals ? Chief Towns ? 
Capital? Chief Towns? 
Capital ? Chief Towns ? 
Capital? Chief Towns? 


United Provinces ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? 
Chili ? Capital ? Chief Towns ? 

Patagonia ? 


Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 


RIVERS. 

Where does Port Desire river rise, in what direc- 
tion does it run, and where does it empty ? Cama- 
ranes ? Rio Negro ? Colorado ? Willows? Saladillo? 
Dulce ? Salado ? Vermejo or Grand ? Pilcomayo ? 
Paraguay ? Uruguay ? Parana ? St. Francisco ? 
Salgado ? Parnatha ? Itapecura ? Tocantins ? Ara- 
guay ? *Xingu ? Topajos ? Madeira? Puros? 
Ucayale ? Amazon? Negro? Yupura? Putumayo? 


*Zin'-gu. 

11 


122 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


Napo ? lastaca? Essequibo? Oronoco ? Magdale- 
na ? Cauca ? 


ISLANDS. 

Where is the Island of Trinidad i 
Where is the Island of Joannes or Marajo ? 
Where are Martin Vas, Trinidad, and Saxenburg 
Isles ? 

Where are Georgia, Aurora, and Falkland Isles? 
Where is the island of Terra del Fuego ? 

Where is Staten Land ? 

Where is the Island of Chiloe ? 

W T here are Juan Fernandes and Massafuero Isles ? 
Where are the Islands of St. Felix, and Ambrose ? 


CAPES. 

Where is Cape Vela ? 

Where is Cape St. Roque ? 

Where is Cape Horn ? 

WFere is Cape Blanco ? 

W T here is Cape Orange ? 

Where is Cape North ? 

Where is Cape Frio ? 

Where are Cape St. Maria and Cape St. Antonio ? 
Where is Cape Pillar ? 

WThere are Cape St. Francisco and Cape Cori- 
entes ? 


LAKES. 

Where is Lake Titicaca ? 
W T here is Salt Lake ? 

Where is Lake Colugnape ? 
Where is Lake de los Palos ? 
Where is lake Maracayho ? 


WAYS* 

Where is St. George’s Bay 


SOUTH AMERICA 


123 


Whore is the Bay of St. Matthias ? 
Where is Anegada Bay ? 

Where is the Bay of All Saints 1 
Where is the Bay of Panama ? 


GULFS. 

Where is the Gulf of Maracaybo ? 
Where is the Gulf of Darien ? 

Where is the Gulf of Penas ? 

Where is the Archipelago of Chonos ? 


MOUNTAINS. 

How far do the Andes extend ? 

Where is Chimborazo, the highest peak of the 
Andes ? 

Where is Cotopaxi, the second highest peak ? 
Where is Mount Chilian ? 


COLOMBIA. 



Andes. 

How is Colombia bounded ? What is the Capital ? 


Colombia embraces New Grenada and Vene- 



124 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


zuela. Its surface is greatly diversified. In the 
eastern part, especially near the Orinoco, it con- 
sists of immense plains ; in the western part, it 
contains some of the highest summits of the An- 
des, and abounds in the most sublime scenery. 

The climate on the coast and in the plains, is 
hot and unhealthy ; in the mountainous regions it 
varies with the elevation. The highest summits 
have perpetual winter. 

The soil of the valleys and plains is fertile, 
producing cotton , grain , coffee , tobacco , and va- 
rious tropical fruits . 

The falls of *Tequendama in the river Bogota, 15 miles 
S. W.from Santa Fe de Bogota, present one of the grand- 
est and most sublime scenes in the world. The river above 
the falls, is 140 feet broad ; it is compressed to 35 feet at the 
falls ; when it rushes down at two bounds to the astonishing 
depth of 600 feet. 

Towns . — Santa Fe de Bogota is situated in the midst of 
a fertile plain which is elevated about 8,700 feet above the 
level of the ocean, it is handsomely built and contains about 
40,000 inhabitants. 

f Quito is distinguished for its great elevation. It is situ- 
ated on a plain between two ridges of the Andes, 9,500 feet 
above the level of the sea. It is subject to dreadful earth- 
quakes and tempests, and for this reason the houses are only 
-of one story. Population 75,000. 


What are the 5 principal Rivers that empty into the Am- 
azon ? n. y. p. n. p. — What large River rises in Colombia 
and empties into the Atlantic ? o. — What 4 branches has 
the Oronoco ? a. m. g. c. — What river empties into the Ca- 
ribbean Sea? m. — What branch has it ? c. — What Moun- 
tains extend through the western part p a. — Where is Chim- 
borazo, and how high is it ? Where is Cotopaxi, the highest 
volcano on the globe ? Flow high is Cotopaxi ? What 
Lake and Gulf in the northern part? m. m. — What ports on 
the Isthmus of Darien? p-b. and r. — What 6 Ports on the 


* Ta-kwen-da-ma. 


t Ke'-to. 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


125 


Caribbean sea ? l. c. St.-M. r-c. c. c. — What 2 Towns on 
the gulf of Maracaybo? m. c. — What Town S. of L. Mara- 
caybo? v. — What 3 Towns on the Oronoco ? St.-T. c.-r. e. 
What Town near the mouth of the Oronoco? v-g. — What 
Town near the river Negro ? Joaquim. What Town in the 
S. W. part on the Gulf of *Guayaquil ? g. — What Town 
nearly on the Equator? q.. — W hat Town N. of Quito W. of 
the Andes? b. — What Town among the Andes? p. — What 
4 Towns around the Capital in different directions? p. n. c. 
e. — What 5 Towns on the Amazon? o. s-j. s-l. l. j. — 
What town among the Andes near Jaen ? c. 


GUIANA. 

How is Guiana bounded? What are its Capitals? 


Guiana is generally a level and extremely fer- 
tile country, with a hot, moist, unhealthy climate. 
Its chief productions are sugar , coffee , cotton , co- 
coa maize and indigo . 

Guiana is divided into English Guiana — Dutch 
Guiana — and French Guiana. 

Towns. — Stabroek, or Georgetown, the Capital of Eng- 
lish Guiana, is situated at the mouth of the Dcmerary river. 
Pop. 9,000. 

Paramaribo, the Capital of Dutch Guiana, is pleasantly 
situated on the Surinam river 13 miles from the sea. Pop. 
20 , 000 . 

Cayenne, the Capital of French Guiana is situated on an 
island of the same name. It has a good harbor, which is 
well defended by a castle. Pop. 2,000. 

What River separates Guiana from Colombia? k. 

What Town at the mouth of the tEssequibo river ? e. 

W hat Town at the mouth of the Demerary river ? s. 

What Town at the mouth of JBerbice river ? n-a. 

What town at the mouth of the Surinam river ? p. 

What Town on an island near the coast ? c. 

How is Guiana divided ? e. d. f. 


* Gwai-a-kill. 


t Es-se-ked-bo. JBer-bees'. 

11 * 


1*26 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


PERU. 

How is Peru bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Peru is distinguished for its mines of gold and 
silver ; likewise for those of copper , * mercury 
and lead . 

The western part of Peru between the Andes 
and the coast, is generally level, barren and un- 
healthy. 

The middle, lying between the two ridges of 
the Andes, has a mild and healthy climate, and 
generally a fertile soil. 

The part east of the mountains consists of im- 
mense plains covered only with grass , called 
pampas . 

The chief productions are cotton , sugar , grain 
and Jesuit's or Peruvian bark . 

Towns. — i* Lima is situated on a small river in the midst 
of a spacious and delightful valley 7 miles from the Pacific. 
It is distinguished for the magnificence of its public build- 
ings, and the rich ornaments of the churches. It was found- 
ed by Pizarro in 1535. Pop. 53,000. Callao is the port of 
Lima. 

Cuzco, 550 miles S. E. of Lima was the ancient capital 
of the Peruvian Empire, founded in 1043 by Manca Capac, 
the first Inca of Peru. It was taken by the Spaniards un- 
der Pizarro, in 1534. it contained a magnificent temple of 
the sun, and other edifices, decorated with gold, and adorned 
with the idols of the various nations subdued by the Incas. 
The city still preserves many monuments of its ancient 
grandeur. Population 32,000. 


What large River rises in Peru and empties into the At- 
lantic ? What 3 Rivers rise in lake Rogaguado ? p. j. j. 
What 2 other Rivers in Peru ? h. u. — What mountains ex- 


* Peru is the only country in America that produces mer- 
cury, or quicksilver, 
t LefCma. 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


127 

tend through the western part of Peru? a. — What 12 Cities 
on the Pacific ? p. *l. t. g. h. c. p. i. c. q. a. a. — What 2 
Towns among the Andes ? fc. t. — What 3 Towns E. of the 
Andes ? fc. g. c. — Which is the most northern City in Peru ? 
Which is the most southern ? a. 


BRAZIL. 

How is Brazil bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Brazil is generally level, and has a fertile soil, 
and in most parts a temperate and healthy cli- 
mate. It is celebrated for its mines of gold , sil- 
ver and diamonds. 

[Brazil and Hindoostan are the only countries that produce 
diamonds.] 

The principal productions are sugar , tobacco , 
indigo , maize , and various kinds of dye-woods. 

In the interior, are vast herds of homed cattle and wild 
horses , which are hunted only for their skins. Brazil abounds 
in poisonous serpents ; some of which are from 2 5 to 40 feet 
in length. 

The white population is principally in the southern part 
and along the coast. The remainder is inhabited by In- 
dians, who are extremely hostile to the whites. 

The western part of Brazil is called Amazonia which em- 
braces the interior of S. America. It is inhabited entirely 
by Indians, of whom little is known. 

Towns. — Rio Janeiro is well situated for trade and has 
an extensive commerce. The town is well built, and adorn- 
ed with numerous churches and convents. Pop. 100,000. 

Pernambuco is a nourishing place and has a large trade 
principally in cotton. Pop. 36,000. 


Which are the 8 principal Rivers emptying into the At- 
lantic ? p. St.-F. s. p. i. g. c. t. — What large branch has the 
Tocantins ? a. — What Town is situated on a small river that 


*Lam-ba-ok£. I Cax-a-mar-aka. fCam-a-ros'-ke. 


128 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


empties into L. De los Palos? Por-tal-e-gre. — What 16 
Towns on the Atlantic? p. v. f. s. r. s. p. s. p. p. o. p. n. s. c. 
m. — W hat 3 Towns on the Amazon ? s. o. m. — W hat 3 
Towns on its branches? c. p. and v-b. — [V a. or v. stands 
for villa.] What town on the Araguay? — What one near 
it? v-b. — W hat Town on the Tocantins ? a. What Town 
on a branch of the Par-na-tha ? Va. o. — What 7 Towns on 
and near the river St. Francisco ? p. a. s. t. and p. t. v. r. — 
What 2 Towns S. W. of Hio Janeiro? s. p. and va-N. — 
What 3 Towns on the sources of the Paraguay ? c. St.-p. 
and n.-c. 


BOLIVIA. 

Plow is Bolivia bounded ? What is its Capital ? 


Bolivia resembles Peru in climate, soil, and 
productions. It is famous for its silver mines, 
particularly those of Potosi, which are the rich- 
est on the globe. 

Bolivia was formerly included in the province of Buenos 
Ayres. In 1825 it was erected into a state, and named after 
Bolivar, the distinguished South American general. 

Town. — Potosi is situated on the mountain which con- 
tains the celebrated mines of Potosi. T he mountain is 18 
miles in circumference and about one mile high, in which are 
300 mining pits, which are occasionally worked. These 
mines were accidentally discovered in 1545. Potosi has a 
college and several convents and nunneries. The inhabi- 
tants are principally engaged in working the mines. Pop. 
40,000. 

What extensive Desert in the western part? a. — What 

Seaport on the coast ? c. or Port . What town among 

the Andes? l-p. — What Town on the Pilcomayo ? p. — On 
the Vermejo ? t. — What Town in the interior? c. 

UNITED PROVINCES. 

How are the United Provinces bounded ? What is the 
Capital ? 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


129 


The United Provinces are a level, fertile., and 
populous country, and abound in vast and ex- 
tended plains covered only with grass. 

These plains are mostly uninhabited, and are frequented 
by immense herds of cattle, which are hunted only for their 
skins. 

These provinces are rich in minerals, and pro- 
duce most of the fruits and vegetables of the 
torrid and temperate zones. 

The portion between the Parana and Paraguay rivers, pro- 
duces a singular herb, called matte , which is used as a sub- 
stitute for tea in various parts of S. America, and forms ono 
of the principal articles of export from this province. 

Towns . — *Buenos Ayres is situated on the Rio de la Pla- 
ta, 180 miles from its mouth. It is well built, and rapidly 
increasing in commerce, population and wealth. The La 
Plata is here 30 miles wide, but the navigation is dangerous 
owing to frequent storms. Buenos Ayres is celebrated for 
the mildness and salubrity of its climate. Pop. 62,000. 

tMonte Video is situated 120 miles E. of Buenos Ayres. 
It has the best harbor on the La Plata. It has a considera- 
ble trade, principally in hides, tallow, and dried beef. Pop. 
20 , 000 . 


Which is tiie largest River in the United Provinces ? l. 
What 2 Rivers unite and form the La Plata? u. p. — What 
River empties into the La Plata? s. — What 4 branches has 
the Paraguay ? s. v. p. p. — What river empties into Salt 
Lake ? W hat 3 Rivers in the southern part ? n. c. w. — What 
4 Towns on the Paraguay ? a. n. c. s-e. — What. 3 Towns in 
the northern part ? x. j. s. — What 3 Towns in the W. part ? 
m. s-J. r. — What 5 Towns in the interior ? t. c. s. c. St. l. 
What Town near cape St. Maria? m. — W hat Mountains 
separate the United Provinces from Chili. 

X CHILI. 

How is Chili bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Chili consists of a long narrow tract lying be- 


* Bo-nos- \ ires, t Mon-te Vee-de-o. ^ Che£-I£. 


130 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


tween the Andes and the Pacific. It is one of 
the most healthy, fertile, and beautiful countries 
in the world. 

Chili has numerous mines of gold , silver , cop- 
per , tin and iron ; and produces grain , sugar , 
cotton , oil , iczrae, and fruits in abundance. 

In some parts of Chili it seldom or never rains ; 
but the country is well watered by means of the 
numerous small rivers, which flow from the An- 
des into the Pacific. Among the Andes in Chi- 
li, are 14 volcanoes which are in a constant state 
of eruption. Earthquakes frequently happen, 
which often do extensive injury. 

The Aricanians, an independent tribe of war- 
like Indians, inhabit the southern part of Chili. 
They are distinguished for their love of liberty, 
bravery and humanity. 

Towns . — Santiago was founded in the year 1541. It is 
situated in the midst of a beautiful plain, about 90 miles from 
Valparaiso. Its houses are built of brick, and only one story, 
on account of earthquakes. It has a considerable trade. 
Its inhabitants are distinguished for gayety and hospitality. 
Pop. 50,000. 

Valparaiso, the port of Santiago, is the most commercial 
city in Chili. It has an excellent harbor, and a considerable 
trade. Pop. 7,000. 


What 6 Towns on the Pacific? j. c. c. v. c. v. — What re- 
markable summit of the Andes in Chili ? Mt. c. — How high 
is Mt. Chilian ? What Island near the southern part of Chi- 
li ? c. — What extensive Desert N. of Chili ? a. — On what 
river is Santiago situated ? A. On the river Maypo. 


PATAGONIA. 

How is Patagonia bounded ? 

/ 

Patagonia is a cold, inhospitable region, of 
which little is known except the coasts. It is in- 


SOUTH AMERICA. 


131 


habited by various tribes of Indians, who are 
said to be of gigantic size. 


Which are the 3 principal rivers of Patagonia ? p-d. c. n. 
What Straits separate it from Terra del Fuego ? What 2 
Bays on the eastern coast? g. m. — What Gulf on the west- 
ern coast? p. — W hat Archipelago on the western coast ? 
What Peninsula south of it ? What Desert in the interior ? 
G-cr. 


Square Miles and Population. 
Divisions. Sq. M. Pop. 


Colombia 

Guiana 

Peru 

Brazil 

Bolivia 

U. Provinces 

Chili 

Patagonia 


160 0000] 2600000 
70000 i 250000 
SOOOOOj 1500000 
2200000 3000000 
75000011740000 
900O00 2000000 
180000 1400000 
500000 1 


(QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

How will you sail from Porto Bello to Panama ? 

How will you sail from Panama to Assumption ? 

What singular herb do you find here, and for what 
is it a substitute ? 

How will you sail from Assumption to Cuzco ? 

What can you say respecting Cuzco ? 

How will you sail from Cuzco to Santa Fe De 
Bogota ? 

What curiosity do you find near this place ? 

Why are there no large Rivers that empty into 
the Pacific ocean ? 

Which River empties into the Atlantic by several 
mouths ? o. 

Supposing you were at Cape Horn to-day at 12 


132 


EUROPE. 


o’clock, in what direction would your shadow 7 fall ? 
Why t 

What season is it in South America now ? 


The Initials of certain towns in South America 
form the sentence ; bolivar is not a Washington, 
what are their names and where are they situated ? 





Q. How does Europe compare with the other Grand Di- 
visions of the globe ? 

A. Europe is the smallest of the five grand di- 
visions of the globe ; being 3,000 miles long from 
E. to W. and 2,500 broad from N. to S. contain- 
ing 3,300,000 square miles. 

Q. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude does 
it lie ? 

A. Between 36° and 71° N. latitude ; and be- 
tween 9^° W. and 60° E. longitude. 

Q. What is said respecting the climate of Europe ? 


EUROPE. 


133 


A. It is milder than that of Asia, or America, 
in the same latitude. The southern part below 
45° N. latitude is warm, producing the olive , vine , 
mulberry and orange. Between 45° and 65° it 
is temperate, being the climate of fruits , grain , 
grass , and esculent plants. The part north of 
55° is severely cold, producing but few of the 
necessaries of life. 

Q. For what is Europe distinguished ? 

A. It is distinguished for learning and science, 
for excellence in the useful and elegant arts, and 
for the intelligence, refinement, activity and en- 
terprise of its inhabitants. 

Q. What is the state of literature in Europe ? 

A. It has reached a higher degree of perfection than in any 
other part of the globe. The Universities of Europe are nu- 
merous, and generally on a more extended plan than those 
in the United States. The most celebrated are those of Ox- 
ford ana Cambridge. 







134 


EUROPE. 


The following Table exhibits a view of some of the most 
celebrated Universities in Europe. 


Universities. 

St’s. 

Libr'y. 

P. 

Cambridge 

2000) 

100 00 

— 

Oxford 

3000 

— 

— 

Salamanca 

3000 

20000 

60 

Saragossa 

2000 

— 

— 

Edinburgh 

2000 

50000 

27 

Glasgow 

1400 

— 

— 

Aberdeen 

400 

13000 

— 

Leyden 

300 

50000 

21 

Upsal 

1200 

40000 

— 

Vienna 

1600 

350000 

77 

Prague 

1449 

100 000 

55 

Gottingen 

1500 

300000 

40 

Leipsic 

1300 


81 

Berlin 

1600 

160000 

84 

Halle 

1000 

50000 

54 

Copenhagen 

700 

60000 

— 

Kiel 

150 

— 

— 

"Pa d n a Tt 

300 



A auud^ At# 

Palermo 

500 


■ ■ . 


Q, What is the state of education? 

A. Instead of being diffused through all ranks 
of society, as in the United States, it is confined 
to the higher and middle classes, who spare no 
pains or expense in acquiring a liberal and fin- 
ished education : but the lower classes are gene- 
rally ignorant, superstitious and degraded. 

[In some parts of Europe no provision has been made for 
the education of the Lower class, and it is seldom a person 
can be found among them, who is able either to read or write. 
The countries best provided with schools for the instruction 
of the poor, are Scotland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Ger- 
many, Prussia and Switzerland. In many of these, Parish 
schools are kept, similar to those in the United States.] 

Q. What can you say of the inland navigation ? 

A. By means of the numerous rivers and ca- 
nals, it is very extensive. 


EUROPE 


135 


) 

The following Table exhibits a view of the length, breadth, 
and depth of some of the principal canals in Europe. 


Canals . 

Connecting. 

L'h. 

W. 

D. 

Languedoc 

Garonne & Meditterran’n 

miles 

140 

feet 

64 

feet. 

6 

Grand Trunk 

Mersey and Trent 

140 

30 

5 

Leeds and Liverp’l. 

Leeds and Liverpool 

140 



44 

Grand Junction 

Thames & Grand Trunk 

100 

36 

44 

Grand Irish 

Shannon and Liffey 

83 

40 

5 

Central 

Soane and Loire 

71 

48 

54 

Orleans 

Loire and Seine 

45 

30 

44 

Kiel 

Baltic and North Sea 

22 

100 

10 

Caledonian 

Atlantic and Murry Firth 

2 

110 

20 

Forth and Clyde 

Forth and Clyde 

35 

56 

7 


SQUARE MILES AND POPULATION. 


The following Table shews the extent, population and 
number of inhabitants on a square mile, of the principal di- 
visions in Europe. pop. 


Countries. 

Sq. M. 

Pop. 

on a 
s. m. 

Capitals. 

Russia 

1891000 

41773000 

22 

St. Petersburgh 

Austria 

267674 

27972000 

105 

Vienna 

Turkey 

206000 

9600000 

46 

Constantinople 

France 

200000 

30000000 

146 

Paris 

Sweden 

188433 

2407206 

13 

Stockholm 

Spain 

182000 

10350000 

57 

Madrid 

Norway 

161000 

9300000 

6 

Bergen 

Prussia 

105770 

9904549 

94 

Berlin 

Great Britain 

88570 

12552144 

141 

London 

Naples 

43600 

6618000 

152 

Naples 

Portugal 

40885 

3683000 

90 

Lisbon 

Ireland 

32000 

6500000 

203 

Dublin 

Bavaria 

31966 

3560000 

111 

Munich 

Sardinia 

27400 

3994000 

146 

Turin 

Netherlands 

25565 

5285000 

206 

Amsterdam 

Denmark 

21615 

1565000 

72 

Copenhagen 

Switzerland 

19000 

1750C00 

92 

Berne 

Hanover 

15004 

1305351 

87 

Hanover 

Roman States 

14500 

2346000 

162 

Rome 

Wirtemberg 

8118 

1395463 

172 

Stuttgard 

Saxony 

7436 

1200000 

161 

Dresden 


136 


EUROPE. 


Which is the largest division of Europe ? How many 
square miles has Russia ? What is its population ? How 
many inhabitants to a square mile ? Which is the second 
largest ? Which is the third ? The fourth ? How many 
square miles has France ? Which division has the most 
dense population ? 


MAP OF EUROPE. 

How is Europe bounded ? 


Portugal ? 

Capital ? 

Spain ? 

Capital ? 

France ? 

Capital ? 

Netherlands ? 

Capital ? 

Germany ? 

Capital ? 

Denmark ? 

Capital ? 

Switzerland ? 

Capital ? 

Italy ? 

Capital ? 

Austria ? 

Capital ? 

Turkey ? 

Capital ? 

Prussia ? 

Capital ? 

Russia ? 

Capital ? 

Sweden ? 

Capital ? 

Norway? 

Capital ? 

England ? 

Capital ? 

Scotland ? 

Capital ? 

Ireland ? 

Capital ? 


Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns? Rivers? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 
Chief Towns ? Rivers ? 


RIVERS. 

Where does the river Ebro rise, what course does 
it run, and where does it empty ? Guadalquiver ? 
Guadiana? Tagus? Duero, orDouro? Minho ? 
Garonne ? Loire ? Seine ? Rhine ? Rhone ? 
Saone ? Po ? Tiber ? Danube ? Drave ? Save ? 
Pruth ? Dniester ? Bog ? Dnieper ? Donee ? 
Don? Volga? Ural? Oka? Petchora? Me- 
zen ? Dwina ? Onega ? Duna ? Niemen ? Vis- 


EUROPE. 


137 


tula? Oder? Elbe? Weser? Ems ? Tornea? 
Glomma ? Thames ? Severn ? Shannon ? 


LAKES. 

Where are Lakes Ladoga, and Onega ? 
Where are Lake Wenner and Lake Wetter ? 
Where are Lakes Constance and Geneva ? 


GULFS. 

Where is the Gulf of Venice ? 
Where is the Gulf of Taranto ? 
Where is the Gulf of Genoa ? 
Where is the Gulf of Lyons ? 
Where is the Zuider Zee ? 
Where is the Gulf of Bothnia? 
Where is the Gulf of Finland ? 
Where is the Gulf of Riga ? 


SEAS. 

Where is the Caspian Sea ? 
Where is the Sea of Azof ? 
Where is the Black Sea? 
Where is the Sea of Marmora ? 
Where is the Archipelago ? 
Where is the Mediterranean ? 
Where is the Irish Sea ? 

Where is the North Sea ? 
Where is the Baltic Sea ? 
Where is the White Sea ? 

BAYS. 

Where is the Bay of Biscay ? 
Where is the Bay of Naples ? 


STRAITS. 

Where is the Strait of Constantinople ? 
Where are the Dardanells ? 

I Q* 

1 


138 


EUROPE. 


Where is the Strait of Otranto ? 
Where is the Strait of Messina ! 
Where is the Strait of Bonefacio ? 
Where is the Strait of Gibraltar ? 
Where is the Strait of Dover ? 
Where is the Skager Rack ? 
Where is the Cattegat ? 


CHANNELS. 

Where is the English Channel ; 
Where is St. George’s Channel ? 
Where is Bristol Channel ? 

Where is North Channel ? 


ISLANDS. 

Where are the Luffoden Islands ? 

Where is Iceland ? 

Where are the Faroe Islands ? 

Where are the Shetland and Orkney Isles ? 

Where are the Hebrides or Western Islands? 
Where is the Isle of Man and Anglesea? 

Where are the Islands of Guernsey, Jersey, A 1 
derny, Sark, and Wight ? 

Where are the Scilly Islands ? 

Where are Bellisle and Isle of Rhe ? 

Where are Ivica, Majorca and Minorca ? 

Where are Sardinia, Corsica and Elba ? 

Where are the Lipari Islands ? 

Where is the Island of Sicily ? 

Where is Malta, or Melita? 

Where is the Island of Candia ? 

Where are Cyprus and Rhodes ? 

Where are Negropont, Scio, Samos, and Patmos ? 
Where are the Ionian Islands ? 

Where are Zealand and Funen ? 

Where are Gothland, Aland and Oland 


EUROPE. 


139 


PENINSULAS. 

Where is the Peninsula of Crimea ? 
Where is the Peninsula of Morea ? 


MOUNTAINS. 

Where are the Dofrafield Mountains ? 

Where are the Pyrenees ? 

Where are the Alps ? 

Where are the Appenines ? 

Where are the Carpathian ? 

Where are the Haemus Mountains ? 

Where are the Ural Mountains ? 

Where are the Olonetz Mountains ? 

Where are the Cevennes ? 

Where are the Erzgeberg Mountains ? 

Where are the Sierra Morena, Toledo and Can^ 
tabian Mountains? 

Where is Mount Etna ? 

Where is Mount Vesuvius? 

Where is Mount Hecla ? 

CAPE So 


Where is Cape North ? Cape Naze ? Land’s 
End ? Lizard Point ? Cape Clear ? Cape La 
Hogue ? Cape Ortegal ? Cape Finisterre ? Cape 
St. Vincent ? Cape Spartivento ? Cape Matapan ? 

Which is the most northern Cape ? n. 

Which is the most southern Cape ? t. 

Which is the most eastern Cape ? n. 

Which is the most western Cape ? c. 

What is the length of the Volga ? — Danube ? — 
Dnieper ? — Don ? — -Rhine ? — Dniester ? — -Dwina ? 
Duna ? Rhone ? Elbe ? Loire ?— 1 Tagus ? Vistu 
la ? Niemen ? — Weser ? — Bog ? Save ? Oder ? 
Mezen ?~Ebro ? Drave ? Po ? Duero ? Guadiana J 


140 


EUROPE. 


Oka ? — Guadalquiver ? Garonne ? Glomma ? Tor- 
nea ? Onega ?-Seine ?-Thames ? Donee ? Shan- 
non ? Pruth ? Tiber ? Saone ? Minho ? Severn ? 


NORWAY. 



TAc Maelstroom. 

How is Norway bounded ? What is its Capital ? 


Norway is a Ct>ld, rugged, mountainous and 
barren country, and abounds in the most beauti- 
ful and sublime scenery. 

The chief wealth of Norway consists in its im- 
mense forests of pine, which furnish vast quan- 
tities of lumber for exportation, and in its fishe- 
ries, and mines of iron, copper, and silver. 

Norway is distinguished for the *Maelstroom, 
a dreadful whirlpool on its coast. It can be 
heard at a great distance, and is so violent, that 


* Mawl'stroom. 




EUROPE. 141 

every thing which comes near it, is drawn in, 
and dashed to pieces. 

Character . — The Norwegians are honest, brave, and in- 
dustrious; and generally well instructed in the common 
branches of education. 

[Norway was formerly an independent kingdom, but in 
1397 it was annexed to Denmark, and in 1814 it was ceded 
to Sweden.] 

Towns . — Bejigen is finely situated for trade, and is the 
most populous and commercial town in Norway. Popula- 
tion 18,000. 

Christiana has a large share of commerce, and is the most 
beautiful and pleasant town in the kingdom. Pop. 12,000. 

Drontheim has a good harbour, and considerable trade. 
It was anciently the residence of the Norwegian kings. — 
Pop. 9,000. 

A I-' <— 

What mountains separate Norway from Sweden ? d. — 
How many inhabitants on a square mile ? [See page 135.] 
What is the principal River in Norway ? g. — What islands 
on the coast of Norway ? l. — W hat whirlpool on the coast p 
m. — W hich is the most northern town ? d. — W hat Town N. 
of Bergen ? Loevig. What Town on Christiana Gulf in 
the 60° of N. latitude ? c. — What Town near the mouth of 
the Glomma, noted for the death of Charles XII. king of 
Sweden? f. — W hat Town on the Skager Rack ? c. — What 
Town in the interiour? k. — W hich is the most northern 
Cape ? The most southern ? How will you sail from Bergen 
to Stockholm? 


SWEDEN. 

How is Sweden bounded ? What is its Capital ? 


Sweden is a mountainous country ; and is cel- 
ebrated for the number of its lakes and rivers. 

The wealth of Sweden consists principally in 
its mines of iron, copper, and lead ; and in its ex- 
tensive forests, which furnish timber, pitch, tar 
and turpentine in large quantities. 

The winters in Sweden are long, and severely 


142 


EUROPE. 


cold ; tlie summers are short, and extremely 
warm. The soil in most parts is unproductive, 

and unfit for cultivation. 

Character . — The Swedes are polite, brave and hospita- 
ble ; and are distinguished for their general education and 
morality. 

Towns . — Stockholm is situated on seven rocky islands in 
the strait which connects lake Malar with the Baltic. It 
has a safe and commodious harbour, and an extensive trade. 
Pop. 75,000. 

Gottenburg is well situated for trade, and is next to Stock- 
holm in commerce, population and wealth. It is the seat 
of the Swedish East India Company, and its commercial con- 
nexions extend to all parts of Europe, America, and the West 
Indies. Pop. 24,000. 

Carlscrona has a large share of commerce, and is the 
principal station of the Swedish navy. Pop. 12,000. 

Which are the 2 principal Rivers in Sweden ? d. t. — 
Which are the 3 principal Lakes ? w. w. and Ma-lar. — What 
Town on the Cattegat ? g. — What 2 Towns on the Baltic ? 
c. c. — What Town N. of Stockholm? u. — Whtbt Town on 
the river Dal? f. — W hat 4 Towns on the Gulf of Bothnia? 
g. u. p. t. — What Town in the western part, among the 
mountains ? t. — What Town in the southern part, on the 
sound of Elsinore ? Malmo.— — What 3 Islands in the Baltic, 
near the coast of Sweden ? g. o. a. — H ow will you sail from 
Stockholm to Tornea? 


EUROPE. 


143 


LAPLAND. 



Laplander Travelling . 

Lapland occupies the northern part of Nor- 
way, Sweden and Russia. It is a cold, gloomy, 
and barren region, and very thinly inhabited. 

Their principal wealth is the rein deer , which 
supplies them with food and clothing, and serves 
also as a beast of burden. 

In the northern part, the sun does not set during several 
weeks in the summer, and does not rise for tho same length 
of time in the winter. 

The Laplanders are under no regular government and 
are a miserable, ignorant, and superstitious race. They live 
in small huts, half sunk under ground ; in the middle of 
which they build their fire, and sit around it on their heels. 
They place their food on the ground, and eat it with their 
fingers. In the winter they make long excursions on the ice, 
in sledges, drawn by rein deer. 

Towns . — Kola is the capital of Russian Lapland ; and 
Tornea, of Swedish Lapland. Pop. of each, 600. 


What are the 2 principal Rivers in Lapland? — a. t. — 
What 3 Towns in Lapland ? t. o. k. — How will you sail 
from Tornoa to St. Petersburg ? 


144 


/ 


EUROPE. 


RUSSIAN EMPIRE. 

In extent of territory, the Russian Empire surpasses all 
others on the globe. It embraces nearly half of Europe, 
more than one third of Asia, and the northwestern part of 
North America. 


RUSSIA IN EUROPE. 

How is Russia bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Russia is generally a level country, and is dis- 
tinguished for its vast plains and majestic rivers. 

The northern part is severely cold and unpro- 
ductive ; the southern part is temperate, and pro- 
duces wheat , rye , oats , barley , and maize , in great 
abundance. 

Russia has mines of silver , copper , and iron . 

The commerce of Russia is very extensive. 
It is carried on through the Caspian, Black, Bal- 
tic, and White Seas. By means of its numerous 
rivers and canals, goods are conveyed by water 
through all parts of the interior. 

The common method of travelling in winter, 
is in sledges, or in small houses placed on sleds. 

Character . — The Russians are hardy, vigorous, and pa- 
tient of labour ; but extremely rude, ignorant and barbarous. 
The lower classes are slaves to the nobles. 

Towns.— -St. Petersburg was founded in 1704, by Peter 
the Great. It is distinguished for the width and regularity 
of its streets, and the general magnificence of its buildings. 
Pop. 300,000. 


EUROPE. 


145 


Cronstadt, the seaport of St. Petersburg, is situated 20 
miles distant, on an island in the gulf of Finland, and is the 
principal station of the Russian navy. Pop. 40,000. 

Moscow, the ancient capital of Russia, is situated on the 
Moskwa. It was burned in 1812, to prevent its falling into 
the hands of the French. It has since been rebuilt, and con- 
tains about 300,000 inhabitants. 


What are the 2 principal Lakes in Russia ? o. l. — W hat 
2 ranges of Mountains ? o. u. — What are the Rivers of 
Russia? What 5 Seas in and around Russia ? c. a. b. b. w. 
What town at the mouth of the Danube ? i. — What 2 Towns 
on the Dniester ? b. a. — W hat Seaport on the Black Sea ? o. 
What 4 Towns on theDnieper? c. k. n. s. — What Town on 
the Don ? t. — W hat 13 Towns on the Volga and its bran- 
ches ? a. s. *t. o. p. v. k. r. n. m. k. +t. j. — What Town on 
the Ural? o. — What Town on the fPetchora ? g. — W hat 
Town at the mouth of the Mezen? m. — W hat 2 Towns on 
the river Ousa? o. and o. — What three towns on the Dwina ? 
v. a. t. — What Town on the Onega ? o. — What 3 Towns in 
Finland? w. a. u. — What Town on the Gulf of Finland, 
memorable for the first battle between Peter the Great and 
Charles XII. ? r. — What town on the gulf of Riga ? r. — 
What Town on the Duna ? r. — What Town on the Niemen ? 
On a branch of the Niemen ? w. — What town S. E. of 
Wilna ? m. — W hat 2 Towns S. E. of St. Petersburg ? n. v. 
What Town in Crimea? k. — What Tribe of Cossacks on 
the River Don? d-c. — Where is Pultowa, memorable for the 
last battle between Peter the Great and Charles XII. ? How 
will you sail from St. Petersburg to Warsaw ? 


POLAND. 

How is Poland bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Poland was formerly a large, independent, and 
powerful kingdom, but since 1772 it has been di- 
vided between Prussia, Austria and Russia. 

In 1815, a small portion of its former limits was 


* Za-rit'zeen. 


t Ver. 

13 


f Pe-ko'ra. 


EUROPE. 


146 


erected into a kingdom, and is governed by a 
viceroy appointed by the emperor of Russia. 

Poland is generally a level country, abounding 
in extensive marshes. The climate is cold, but 
the soil is productive. 

Character. — The nobles are rude, haughty, and illiterate : 
the peasants are poor, wretched and servile. 

Towns. — W arsaw is well situated for commerce* and has 
an extensive inland trade. It presents a striking contrast of 
splendid mansions and miserable hovels. Pop. 76,000. 

Cracow is well situated on the Vistula, and has an exten- 
sive inland trade. In 1815, Cracow, with a small territory 
adjacent, was constituted a free state, under the protection of 
Prussia, Austria, and Prussia. Pop. 25,000. 

Which is the principal River in Poland ? v. — What 3 
Towns in Poland, besides the capital? p. p. l. — Where is 
Cracow ? How will you sail from W arsaw to Berlin. ? 

PRUSSIA. 

How is Prussia bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Prussia was formerly a small state of Germa- 
ny ; but by gradual accession of territory, it has 
become one of the first kingdoms in Europe. 

It is mostly a level country, with a cold, moist, 
but healthy climate. The soil is various, gene- 
rally better adapted to grazing than cultivation. 

The most celebrated mineral production in 
Prussia is amber , which is found on the shores of 
the Baltic. 

Prussia possesses a large extent of territory in 
the western part of Germany, lying on both 
sides of the Rhine, and bordering on the king- 
dom of Netherlands.* 


*See the map. 


EUROPE. 


147 


Character . — The higher classes are generally well inform- 
ed, polite, and extremely fond of dress. The lower classes 
are ignorant, degraded, and supcistitious. As a nation, they 
are distinguished for bravery and fondness for war. 

Towns . — Berlin is situated on the river Spree, a small 
branch of the Elbe. It is one of the most beautiiul cities in 
Europe. It is distinguished for the splendour of its public 
edifices, and the extent of its manufactures. Pop. 200,000. 

Breslau, the capital of Silesia, is a beautiful city, and is 
distinguished for its manufacture of linen. Pop. 82,000. 


Which are the 3 principal Rivers in Prussia ? v. o. e. — 
What Town is situated on the Elbe ? m. — What 3 on the 
Oder? s. r. b. — What Town on the Baltic? c. — What 2 
Towns near the mouth of the Vistula? d. k.— How many 
square miles has Prussia ? How will you saii from Berlin to 
Vienna ? 


AUSTRIA. 

How is Austria bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

The Austrian territory was formerly of small 
extent ; but its limits have been increased by 
treaty and conquest, till it has become a power- 
ful empire. 

The soil is generally fertile, and the climate 
mild and healthy. The chief productions are 
grain , wine and olives . 

It is rich in minerals. Hungary is distinguish- 
ed for its rich mines of gold, silver and copper ; Il- 
lyria for its mines of mercury ; and Galicia for 
those of salt. 


148 


EUROPE. 


The salt mines of Wielicza, 0 miles S. of Cracow, are the 
most celebrated of any in the world. The principal mine is 
more than a mile in length, about 1000 feet broad, and 800 
feet deep. 

Character . — The nobles of Austria are ignorant, haughty 
and oppressive ; the lower classes are active moral, and in- 
dustrious. 

Towns . — Vienna is the largest city in Austria, and has an 
extensive trade. It contains many magnificent edifices, and 
is distinguished for sciences, arts, commerce, and refinement. 
Pop. 250,000. 

Prague, the capital of Bohemia, is situated on the Muldau, 
a branch of the Elbe. It has the oldest university in Ger- 
many, founded in 1348. It is noted for its manufactures of 
linens, cottons, and silks. Pop. 84,000. 

Venice is situated at the head of the gulf of Venice, on 72 
small islands, which are connected by 450 bridges. It was 
once a republic, and the greatest commercial city on the 
globe. Though much reduced, it still retains some features 
of its ancient greatness. Pop. 125,000. 


Which is the principal river in Austria? d. — W hat 3 bran- 
ches has the Danube? d. s. t. — What River forms the boun- 
dary between Austria and Italy ? p. — What River rises in the 
northwestern part of Austria and empties into the North sea ? 
e. — What 4 Towns on the Danube? v. p. b. p. — What 6 
Towns on the branches of the Danube ? b. a. t. t. i. g. — 
What town in the S. E. part? h. — In the N. E. ? l. — What 
town in the northern part memorable for the imprisonment 
of La P’ayette ? o. — What town on the Elbe ? p. — What 
2 Towns at the head of the Gulf of Venice ? v. t. — What 2 
Towns on the east side of the Gulf of Venice ? l. it. — What 
Town on the Po, celebrated for being the birth-place of Vir- 
gil ? m. — W’hat 2 Towns N. of Mantua, on the Adige river ? 
t. v. — What Town in the western part, capital of Austrian 
Italy ? m. — What Mountains in Austria ? c. e. — How long 
are the Carpathian Mountains? How many square miles has 
Austria ? What is the population ? How many inhabitants 
to a square mile? How will you sail from Vienna to Berne? 


EUROPE. 


149 


SWITZERLAND. 


How is Switzerland bounded ? What is its Capital ? 


Switzerland is a small, romantic country, lying 
upon the Alps. It abounds in the most pictur- 
esque and sublime scenery, and is the most ele- 
vated portion of Europe. 

The highest summits of the Alps are covered 
with glaciers, or fields of ice , of vast extent and 
magnificence. Switzerland has almost every va- 
riety of climate and soil. 

The vallies are warm and extremely product- 
ive, producing the vine, grain , and various kinds 
of fruit. The chief occupation of the Swiss far- 
mers, is the raising of cattle. 

Character . — The Swiss are intelligent, brave, hardy, and 
jndustrious, and strongly attached to their native soil. 

Towns . — Berne is a large, well fortified town, and is pleas- 
antly situated on the River Aar, a branch of the Rhine. Pop. 
about 13,000. 

Geneva is the largest, and one of the most beautiful cit- 
ies of Switzerland. It is surrounded by a picturesque and 
beautiful scenery, and is distinguished for its literary insti- 
tutions, and its extensive manufacture of watches. Pop, 
22 , 000 . 


What Mountains in Switzerland? a. — What 2 Lakes 
A. Constance and Geneva. What town in the S. W. part 
on the lake of Geneva ? g — What town on the N. E. part, 
on lake Constance ? c. — W'hat Town between Berne and 
Constance ? z. — What River passes through lake Con- 
stance ? r. — What River through Geneva lake ? r. — What 
small Kingdom S. of Switzerland ? s. — How will you sail 
from Berne to Frankfort-on-the-Maine > 


13 * 


150 


EUROPE. 


GERMANY. 

How is Germany bounded ? Its Capitals ? 


Germany embraces thirty-five states, and four 
free cities ; the principal of which are the fol- 


lowing, viz. — 


Capitals . 

Munich. 

Stuttgard. 

Dresden. 

Hanover. 

Carlsruhe. 


1. The Kingdom of Bavaria, 

2. The Kingdom of Wirtemberg, 

3. The Kingdom of Saxony, 

4. The Kingdom of Hanover, 

5. The Grand Dutchy of Baden, 

6. The Prussian Dominions, which lie in the 
western part of Germany, on both sides of the 
river Rhine, and border on the kingdom of the 
Netherlands. 

The four free cities are Hamburg, Frankfort, 
Bremen, and Lubec. 


The states and free cities of Germany, although indepen- 
dent, have formed a union, for the purpose of mutual de- 
fence and protection, styled u The confederation of the sove- 
reigns and free towns of Germany.” The general concerns 
of the confederation are confided to a Federative Diet, which 
holds its sessions at Frankfort-on-the-Maine. 

[The states are bound to defend each other in case of 
foreign invasion ; and engage not to make war upon one 
another, but to submit their differences to the decision of the 
Federative Diet.] 

The northern part of Germany is level ; the southern is 
hilly and mountainous. The soil in most parts is fertile, 
and the climate mild and salubrious. Germany is celebra- 
ted for its mines of silver, copper , tin, zinc, and coal. 

Character . — The Germans are grave, industrious and 
persevering, and are distinguished for their proficiency m 
the arts and sciences. 

Tovws . — Frankfort is a free city, situated on the Maine, 
a branch of the Rhine. It is distinguished for its extensive 
commerce, and for being the permanent seat of the Federa- 
tive Diet. Pop. 44,000. 


EUROPE. 


151 


Hamburgh is the first commercial city in Germany, and is 
distinguished for its charitable and humane institutions. 
Pop. 100,000. 


What 5 Rivers in Germany ? r. e. w. e. d. — In what part 
of Germany is Saxony? e. — W hat is its capital ? d. — W hat 
other Town in Saxony ? l. — In what part is Bavaria ? s-e. 
— What is its Capital ? m. — I n what part is Wirtemburg ? s. 
— What is its Capital ? s. — In what part is Baden ? s-w. — 
What is its Capital ? *c. — In what part is Hanover? N. — 

What is its Capital ? ir. — What other town in Hanover? g. 
— In what part arc the Prussian possessions ? Western 
part. What town in the Prussian possessions? A. Co- 
logne. t Where are the 4 free cities ? Lubec is in the 
northern part near the Baltic. At which of the free cities 
does the Federative Diet liold its sessions? f. — How will 
you sail from Frankfort to Copenhagen ? 


DENMARK. 

Plow is Denmark bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Denmark consists principally of the peninsula 
of Jutland, and the islands of Zealand and Funen. 

It is generally a level and fertile country, with 
a moist but healthy climate. 

Denmark is well situated for trade and has an 
extensive commerce. Its exports consist prin- 
cipally of grain and cattle . 

Iceland and the Faroe Islands belong to Denmark. — Ice- 
land is a cold, barren, and mountainous island, and is cele- 
brated for its volcanoes and for its hot springs, called Gey- 
sers, which often spout hot water to the height of 150 feet. 

Character . — The Danes arc moral, intelligent, industri- 
ous and hospitable. 

Towns . — Copenhagen is situated on the east shore of 


* 


Carls-roo'ee. 


t Co-lone'. 


152 


EUROPE. 


the Island of Zealand. It is one of the best built cities in 
Europe, and has a good harbour, and an extensive com- 
merce. Pop. 100,000. 

Elsmore is situated on the island of Zealand, 20 miles 
N. of Copenhagen. It is distinguished for being the place, 
where all foreign ships that trade to the Baltic, nay toll. 
Pop. -£,000. 

What is the Strait called between Zealand and Sweden ? 
A. The Sound. Between Zealand and Funen ? A. The 
Great Belt. Between Funen and the peninsula of Jut- 
land? A. The Little Belt. What Canal connects the 
Baltic to dhe North Sea? A. The Canal of Kiel. What 
Town in the northern part ? v. — What Town in the south- 
ern part ? k. — What Islands belong to Denmark ? f. and 
ii. — What 2 Towns in Iceland ? h. s. — What Volcano in the 
southern part ? h. — How high is Mt. Hecla ? What is a 
Volcano? What remarkable Springs in Iceland? What 2 
small Islands in the North Sea near Denmark ? s. h. — How 
many square miles has Denmark ? What is the population ? 
How many inhabitants on a square mile ? How will you 
sail from Copenhagen to Amsterdam ? 


NETHERLANDS. 

How is Netherlands bounded ? W hat is its Capital ? 

Netherlands is the most level country in Eu- 
rope, and near the coast the land is lower than 
the sea. To prevent its being overflowed, the 
inhabitants have erected high mounds or dikes. 

The soil is extremely rich, and highly cultiva- 
ted, producing maize , flax , madder , and good 
pasturage . 

The climate in most parts is cold, and damp 
but is generally healthy, especially in the inte- 
riour. 


* El-se-nore.' 


^ • 


EUROPE. 


153 


Netherlands is distinguished for its numerous 
canals, which serve the same purpose as roads in 
other countries. 

The Dutch formerly were the most commercial nation in 
the world, but since the French revolution, their commerce 
has considerably decreased. They are distinguished for 
their agriculture, and for the extent and variety of their man- 
ufactures. 

Character . — The Dutch are honest, patient, and persever- 
ing ; and remarkable for their industry, frugality and neat- 
ness. 

Towns . — Amsterdam is built in a low marshy spot, on an 
arm of the Zuider Zee. It is the richest, most populous, 
and commercial city of the Netherlands ; and is the seat, of 
numerous manufactures. Pop. 200,000. 

Brussels is a large, splendid, and wealthy city, in the south- 
ern part of Netherlands : and is distinguished for its manu- 
factures of lace, camlets , and carpets. Pop. 80,000. 


What 2 Cities in the western part of Netherlands ? h. a. — 
What City in the southern part, on the river Maes ? l . — 
What City W. of Liege, memorable for the decisive battle 
between the armies of Bonaparte and Lord Wellington in 
1815 ? w. — What City in the S. W. part of the Scheldt, 
memorable for the treaty of peace signed here between 
Great Britain and the United States in 1814 ? g. — Which is 
the principal River in Netherlands ? r. — What is the popu- 
lation ? What is the density of the population ? How will 
you sail from Amsterdam to Paris ? 


FRANCE. 

How is France bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

France is the most beautiful and delightful 
country in Europe, and is distinguished for the 
fertility of its soil, and the mildness of its climate. 

It is generally level, and produces wheat , maize , 
barley , vines , mulberries , olives , and most kinds 
of fruit. 


154 


EUROPE. 


France has a large share of commerce ; and is 
noted for its silks, woollen goods, brandy and 
wines. 

The Island of Corsica belongs to France, and is celebrated 
for being the birth-place of Napoleon Bonaparte. 

Character . — The French are polite, gay, active, and indus- 
trious.; anM celebrated for their proficiency in the arts and 
sciences. 

Towns.-^— Paris is pleasantly situated on both sides of the 
river Seine ; and for splendour, magnificence, and gayety, it 
exceeds any city in the world. It is noted for the extent and 
value of its library and literary institutions, and for the num- 
ber and variety of its amusements. Pop. 800,000. 

Lyons, the second city in France, is situated at the junction 
of the Rhone and *Saone. It has an extensive trade, and is 
noted for the manufacture of silk. Pop. 125,000. 


Which are the 6 principal Rivers in France ? g. l. s. r. s. 

r. — What Mountains separate France from Spain? p. — How 
long are the Pyrenees? What Mountains in the S. E. part ? 
c. — Which is the most S. W. City in France ? b. — What 2 
Cities on the Garonne ? b. t. — W hat 3 Cities on the Bay of 
Biscay ? r.-r. l-o. — What 5 Cities on the Loire ? n. t. o. n. 
c. — Which is the most western city in France ? *b. — What 2 
Cities on the English Channel ? St. b. and c. — What 2 Cities 
on the Seine ? p. r. — What Town on the Straits of Dover? 
c. — What Town on the border of the Netherlands? l. — 
What city S. of Lille ? a. — What 2 Towns on the Moselle, 
a branch of the Rhine ? n. m. — W hat Town on the Rhine ? 

s. — What City at the junction of the Saone and Rhone ? l. — 
What 3 Cities on the Rhone ? v. a. n. — What seaport on the 
Mediterranean ? t. — What large seaport on the Gulf of Ly- 
ons? m. — What inland Town in the southern part, distin- 
guished for its healthy situation ? m. — How will you sail 
from Paris to London ? 


BRITISH EMPIRE. 

The British Empire consists of Great Britain, Ireland, 


* Sone. 


EUROPE 


155 


and the adjacent islands, together with numerous foreign 
possessions in Europe, Asia, Africa, and America. 

It is the most powerful empire on the globe, and is distin- 
guished for the extent of its commerce and manufactures, for 
its vast and powerful navy, and for the intelligence, enter- 
prise, and activity of its inhabitants. 

How is the island of Great Britain divided ? 

In what part of the island is Scotland ? 

In what part of the island is Wales ? 

In what part of the island is England ? 


ENGLAND. 



St. Paul’s Church. 

How is England bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

England is a fruitful and highly cultivated 
country, and is distinguished for its extensive 
commerce, numerous canals, and for the extent, 
variety and value of its manufactures. 

Its surface is agreeably diversified with hills 


156 


EUROPE. 


and plains, and abounds in the most beautiful and 
delightful scenery. 

The soil is extremely fertile, and produces 
wheat , barley , oats , peas , beans, fyc. and good 
pasturage . 

The climate is mild, moist, and variable, and 
is less subject to extremes of heat and cold, than 
that of any other country in the same latitude. 

The mineral productions of England are nu- 
merous, the most valuable of which are coal , cop - 
per , tin , iron and lead . 

Character . — The English are intelligent, brave, industri- 
ous, and enterprising ; but possess great national pride. 

Towns . — London, the metropolis of the British Empire, is 
situated on the Thames, 60 miles from its mouth. It is the 
most populous city in Europe ; and in commerce, manufac- 
tures, and wealth, it is the first city on the globe. It contains 
many magnificent buildings, and is distinguished for its nu- 
merous literary and charitable institutions. Pop. 1,500,000. 

Liverpool is situated on the Mersey ; and by means of ca- 
nals it is connected with the principal manufacturing towns 
in the interiour. It is one of the most flourishing towns in 
England ; and in commerce and wealth, it is second only to 
London. Pop. I 25,000. 

Bristol is a large, flourishing, and commercial city, situated 
on the Avon, 4 miles from its junction with the Severn. It 
is noted for the number of its charitable institutions. Pop. 
88 , 000 . 

Portsmouth, situated on the English channel, is the chief 
naval station of the British Empire. Its harbour is sufficient 
to contain the whole British navy at once. Pop. 45,000. 


What 2 Capes S. W. of England ? What cluster of Isl- 
ands near Land’s End ? s. — What Islands in the English 
Channel belongingto England? Guernsey, Jersey, Alderney, 
Sark and Wight. What 2 Islands in the Irish Sea ? a. m. — 
What 2 Ports on the English Channel ? p. p. — What Town 
on the Thames ? l. — Which is the most eastern Town in 


EUROPE. 


157 


England ? n. — How is Bristol situated ? What Town near 
it ? b. — How is Liverpool situated ? In what direction from 
Liverpool is Leeds, noted for its woollen manufactures ? In 
what direction from Liverpool is Birmingham, distinguished 
for its hardware manufactures ? What 2 Cities on the Hum- 
ber, in the N. E. part ? y. ii. — W hat Town in the northern 
part, near the North Sea, famous for its trade in coals ? n. — 
What Town near the boundary between England and Scot- 
land? c. — In what direction from London is Oxford, cele- 
brated for its university ? What Straits between France and 
England? d. — W hat 4 Channels around the British Isles? 
How many square miles has Great Britain? What is the 
population ? How many inhabitants on a square mile ? 
How will you sail from London to Edinburgh ? 


WALES. 

How is W ales bounded ? 

Wales is a mountainous country, generally re- 
sembling England in climate, soil and produc- 
tions. 

Wales was conquered and united to England in 1283, by 
Edward I. ' 

The eldest son of the King of England, is styled Prince of 
Wales. 

Character . — The Welch are the descendants of the ancient 
Britons. They are a passionate, but honest, brave, and hos- 
pitable people. 


What Channel S. of Wales ? b. — What Channel between 
Wales and Ireland ? What Island near the northern part of 
Wales, distinguished for its mines of copper ? a. — What 2 
Towns in Wales? St. a. and St. d. 


14 


158 


EUROPE. 


SCOTLAND. 



FingaVs Cave , in Staffa, 

How is Scotland bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

The northern part of Scotland, called the High- 
lands , is a cold, mountainous, and barren coun- 
try ; the southern part, termed the Lowlands , is 
agreeably diversified with hills and plains, and 
is noted for the mildness of its climate, and the 
fertility of its soil. 

The principal productions are wheat, rye , oats, 
barley, fyc. The most important minerals are 
coal , iron and lead . 

The principal islands belonging to Scotland, are the Ork- 
ney, Shetland, and Hebrides, or Western Isles. 

In Staffa, one of the W estern Isles, is a remarkable cav- 
ern of great extent, called Fingal’s Cave. It is supported on 
each side by ranges of columns, and roofed by the bottoms 
of such as have been broken away. 

Character . — The Scotch are temperate, industrious, hardy 
and enterprising, and are distinguished for their general edu- 
cation and morality. 

Towns. — Edinburgh is situated 2 miles from the Firth of 
Forth, and is surrounded on all sides, except the north, by 
high hills. It is elegantly built, and has long been celebra- 


EUROPE. 


159 


ted as the seat of science and literature. Pop. 125,000. 
Leith, is the seaport of Edinburgh, situated 2 miles distant, 
On the Firth of Forth. Pop. 20,000. 

Glasgow is situated on the river Clyde, and in population, 
manufactures and commerce, it is the first city in Scotland. 
Pop. 150,000. 

Greenock, on the Firth of Clyde, is the principal seaport 
of Scotland. It has a good harbour and an extensive com- 
merce. Pop. 20,000. 

What Firths or Friths in the eastern part of Scotland ? f. 
m. — What Channel between Scotland and Ireland ? What 
Islands W. of Scotland ? How is Edinburgh situated ? What 
Town N. W. of Edinburgh, on the Tay, distinguished for its 
manufacture of linens? p. — What Town on the North Sea? 
a. — What Town on Murray Firth? i. — What Town E. of 
Inverness ? b. — W hat Town in the northern part of Scot- 
land ? w. — How is Glasgow situated? What Town S. E. 
of Glasgow, distinguished for its manufacture of cottons and 
linens ? p. — How will you sail from Edinburgh to Dublin ? 

IRELAND. 



Giant’s Causeway . 

How is Ireland bounded ? What is its Capital? 

Ireland is a beautiful and fertile island, agree- 
ably diversified with hills and plains. 

Ireland is distinguished for its extensive bogs 



EUROPE 


160 

and morasses , which cover one tenth of its sur- 
face, and are wholly unfit for cultivation. 

The climate is mild, moist, and healthy, but 
subject to frequent changes. 

The principal productions are potatoes , oats , 
grass tmAjlax. The chief articles of export and 
manufacture, are linens and muslins . 

The Giant’s Causeway, on the northern coast, is one of 
the greatest curiosities in the British Empire. It consists of 
several hundred thousand columns of basaltic rock, rising 
from 2 to 400 feet above the surface of the water. 

Character . — The Irish in general are quick of apprehen- 
sion, active, brave, and hospitable ; but passionate, ignorant, 
vain, and superstitious. 



View of Dublin Harbour. 

Towns.- — Dublin is situated on both sides of the river Lif- 
fey ; and in extent and population, it is the second city in 
the British Empire. It contains many magnificent build- 
ings, and has one of the most beautiful harbours in Europe. 
Pop. 200,000, 

Cork is the second city in Ireland, for size, riches and im- 
portance ; and possesses more foreign trade than any other 
port in the island. Pop. 90,000. 



EUROPE. 


1G1 


Limerick, situated on the Shannon, is one of the most 
flourishing towns in Ireland. It is distinguished for its ex- 
tensive manufactures and commerce. Pop. 64,000. 

What Town in the north of Ireland ? l. — What Town in 
the northeastern part, on the Irish Sea? b. — IIow is Dublin 
situated ? What Town in the interior, S. W. of Dublin ? k. — 
What 3 Towns in the southern part of Ireland? w. c. k. — 
What 2 Towns in the western part ? l. g. — What is the prin- 
cipal River in Ireland ? s. — What Sea E. of Ireland ? i. — 
What 2 Channels on the coast of Ireland ? How will you 
sail from Dublin to Lisbon ? 


PORTUGAL. 

How is Portugal bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Portugal is a small and fertile kingdom, and 
is noted for its mild, pleasant, and healthy cli- 
mate. 

The principal productions are vines , olives , 
lemons , jigs , and grain. The chief exports are 
wines , salt and wool. 

Agriculture and manufactures are in a back- 
ward state. 

Character . — The Portuguese are friendly, and hospitable ; 
but ignorant, haughty and superstitious. 

Toicns . — Lisbon is built on several small hills at the 
mouth of the Tagus. It was nearly destroyed in 1775 by an 
earthquake, but it has since been rebuilt. It has a consider- 
able share of commerce, and the best harbor in Europe. Pop. 
250,000. 

Oporto is situated on the Duero, and is the second com- 
mercial town in Portugal. It is noted for its strong wines, 
called Port. Pop. 70,000. 


What 3 Rivers pass through Portugal? g. t. d. — What 
Cape has Portugal? St. v. — What City in the S. part ? Faro. 
What City S. of Lisbon? St. u. — What 2 Towns in the N. 
part ? How will you sail from Lisbon to Madrid ? 

14 * 


162 EUROPE. 

SPAIN. 



13 ull Fights . 

How is Spain bounded ? What -is its Capital ? 

Spain is generally a mountainous country and 
abounds in beautiful and romantic scenery. 

The climate is mild and pleasant in the north, 
but warm and unhealthy in the south. The soil 
is generally fertile, especially in the Southern 
part ; and produces wheat, maize, barley, silk, oil 
and fruits, in abundance. 

Great attention is given to the raising of Me- 
rino Sheep , which produce the finest wool in Eu- 
rope. Agriculture and manufactures are much 
neglected, and the commerce of Spain is chiefly 
carried on by other nations. 

The most noted curiosity of Spain, is Montserrat, 20 miles 
N. W. ot Barcelona. It rises in the form of a sugar-loaf, to 
the height of 3,300 feet, and is inhabited by thousands of 
monks. 

The most favorite amusement of the Spaniards, is hull 
.fights ; and almost every town has an amphitheatre erected 
for this purpose. 



EUROPE. 163 

Character . — The Spaniards are temperate, grave, polite, 
und faithful to their word ; but ignorant, proud, superstitious 
and revengeful. 

Towns . — Madrid is situated on the *Manzanares, a small 
branch of the Tagus. It has neither commerce, nor manu- 
factures, and is important, only for being the capital of 
Spain. It is the* most elevated capital in Europe, being 
about half a mile higher than the level of the sea. Pop. 
200,000. 

Cadiz, is situated on the island of Leon, and is the first 
commercial city in Spain. It has an excellent harbor, and 
is the centre of trade for America and the West Indies. 
Pop. 72,000. 

What are the Rivers of Spain? e. g. g. t. d. m. — What 3 
Capes has Spain ? o. f. t. — W hat Mountains between France 
and Spain ? r. — What 3 ranges of Mountains in Spain? s-m. 
h c. — What 6 Towns on the Mediterranean ? u. v. d. c. a. m. 
—What British Fortress on the Strait of Gibraltar ? g. — 
How is Cadiz situated ? What city on the Guadalquiver ? s. 
— What Town on a branch of the Guadalquiver, formerly 
the residence of the Moorish kings ? g. — W hat Town on the 
Guadiana ? b. — What 2 Towns on the Tagus ? t. t. — What 
2 Cities between the Tagus and Duero ? m. s. — What 2 
Cities on the Duero ? b. v. — On the Ebro? s. t. — What City 
an the branch of the Ebro ? m. — What City between the Du- 
ero and Cantabrian Mountains ? l. — W hat 2 Cities between 
the Cantabrian Mountains and the Bay of Biscay ? B. o. — 
What 2 Ports in the N. W. part of Spain ? Corunna and Fer- 
rol. What other Town in Spain ? M. — What 3 Islands near 
Spain ? i. m. m. — How many square miles has Spain ? How 
will you sail from Madrid to Rome? 


ITALY. 

How is Italy bounded? What is its Capital ? r. 

Italy is one of the most beautiful and interesting 
countries in Europe, and is distinguished for the 
fertility of its soil, the mildness and serenity of its 


* Man-za-na-rees 


164 


EUROPE. 


air, and for the beauty and diversity of its scene- 
ry. — Italy was once the garden of Europe, the pa- 
rent of the arts and sciences, and mistress of the 
world ; but owing to the indolence of the inhabit- 
ants, it is now one of the most feeble and power- 
less divisions in Europe. 

Italy contains the most splendid specimens 
of painting , sculpture, and architecture ; and 
abounds with the remains of ancient monuments, 
such as amphitheatres, triumphal arches, ruins of 
temples, bridges, aqueducts, fyc. 

The principal productions of Italy are grain, 
vines , olives , fruits, silks, and marble . Agricul- 
ture is in a very backward state, and commerce 
and manufactures receive but little attention. 

Italy is divided into a number of small states, the princi- 
pal of which are the following, viz. 1. The Kingdom of Na- 
ples in the southern part, which includes the island of Sicily. 
Capital, Naples. 

2. The Roman States or the Pope’s Dominions in the mid- 
dle. Capital, Rome. 

3. The Grand Dutchy of Tuscany, northwest of the Ro 
man States, dependent on Austria. Capital, Florence. 

4. The Republick of St. Marino, in the eastern part of the 
Roman States, under the protection of the Pope. Capital, 
St. Marino. 


In the northern 
part, dependent 
on Austria. 


5. Dutchy of Lucca. Cap. Lucca 

6. States of Parma fcfc Parma 

7. States of Modena u Modena 

8. Austrian Italy “ Milan 

9. The Kingdom of Sardinia in the northwestern part, 
which includes the Island of Sardinia. Capital, Turin. 

Character . — The Italians are affable and polite ; and excel 
in music, painting and sculpture ; but they are effeminate, 
superstitious, slavish, and revengeful. 

Towns . — Rome once the capital of the Roman Empire, 
and now the residence of the Pope, is situated on the Tiber, 
15 miles from its mouth. Although greatly reduced in pop 
illation and wealth, it is one of the finest cities in Europe, and 


EUROPE. 


165 


contains many magnificent buildings. The church of St. Pe- 
ter’s is the largest, and one of the most beautiful in the world. 
Rome in the days of her highest glory, contained about 

7.000. 000 inhabitants. — The present population is 150,000. 
Naples, situated on the bay of Naples, is distinguished 

for its delightful situation, and for the beauty of its surround- 
ing scenery. It is generally well built, but has few manu- 
factures, and but a small share of commerce. Pop. 300,000. 

Palermo, the capital of the island of Sicily, is a large and 
beautiful city, and has a considerable share of commerce, and 
extensive manufactures of silk. Pop. 150,000. 

Florence, situated on the Arno, is one of the most beau- 
tiful cities in Europe. It is distinguished for the fine arts ; 
and noted for being the birth place of Americus Vesputius. 
Pop. 75;000. 

Leghorn, in the Grand Dutchy of Tuscany, is one of the 
chief seaports of Italy. It is famous for its straw hats. Pop. 

54.000. 

Turin is situated on the Po, in the midst of a fertile and 
delightful country. It is a regular and handsome city, and 
contains 88,000 inhabitants. 

Genoa, once the seat of a famous republick, is now the 
chief seaport of the kingdom of Sardinia. It is noted for 
being the birth place of Columbus. Pop. 76,000. 

What range of mountains in Italy ? a. — Plow long are the 
Appenines ? What Volcano near Naples ? How high is Mt. 
Vesuvius ? Which are the 2 principal Rivers in Italy ? p. t. — 
What Cape S. of Italy? s. — What 3 Gulfs around Italy? v. 
t. g. — W hat Strait is the entrance to the Gulf of Venice ? o. 
— What Strait between Italy and Sicily ? m. — What Moun- 
tain in Sicily ? e. — How high is Mt. Etna ? What 4 Towns in 
Sicily ? p. m. c. s. — What Town in the Southern part of Ita- 
ly ? m. — On the Gulf of Taranto ? t. — What Town near 
Naples? s. — What 4 Towns on the Gulf of Venice ? b. p. a. 
r. — W hf.tTown S. W. of Ravenna? *b. — What 2 Towns in 
the interiour ? f. a. — What Town near Rome ? c-v. — What 
Port west of Florence, and for what is it famous 3 What 
Town on the Gulf of Genoa, and for what is it celebrated? 
g. — How is Turin situated ? What Town near the Moditer- 


* Bo-lo'-na 


166 


EUROPE. 


ranean S. W. of Genoa ? n. — What Island does the Kingdom 
of Sardinia include ? s. — What 2 Towns on Sardinia ? c. s. — 
To whom does Corsica belong? f. — What small Island be- 
tween Corsica and Italy ? e. — For what is it remarkable ? 
What is the principal Town in Corsica? b. — I n what part of 
Corsica is Ajaccio, the birth place of Napoleon Bonaparte ? 
What Strait between Corsica and Sardinia ? b. — W hat small 
Islands N. of Sicily ? l. — What Island S. of Sicily ? m. — H ow 
will you sail from Rome to Constantinople ? 

TURKISH EMPIRE. 

The Turkish Empire embraces Turkey in Eu- 
rope, Turkey in Asia, and Egypt. 

The Turks were originally from Tartary in 
Asia. They began their conquests about the 
beginning of the eleventh century. 

In 1228, they overthrew the empire of the 
Saracens, and in 1453 took Constantinople, and 
put an end to the eastern Roman empire. 

TURKEY IN EUROPE. 

How is Turkey bounded ? Its Capital ? 

Turkey in Europe embraces ancient Greece, 
and is celebrated for its numerous remains of an- 
tiquity. 

Ancient Greece, now the southern part of Turkey, was 
the first civilized and enlightened country in Europe. Its 
heroes, orators, statesmen, philosophers, painters, &c. sur- 
passed all others of antiquity, and to them mankind are in- 
debted for the first rudiments in many of the arts of civilized 
life. 

The northern part is level, consisting chiefly of 
immense plains ; the southern is mountainous 
and abounds in beautiful scenery. 

The climate is mild and healthy ; and the soil 
is extremely fertile, but poorly cultivated- 


EUROPE. 


167 


The principal productions are wheat , cotton , 
rice , vines, figs and 

Character. — The Turks are honest, grave and hospitable 
to strangers ; but haughty, bigoted, insolent, and revenge- 
ful. 

The Greeks are active, ingenious, brave and courteous ; 
but insincere, avaricious and treacherous, 

[The Greeks have, for centuries, been held in a most de- 
graded state of slavery. But in 1820, they threw off the 
Turkish yoke, and are *noiv struggling for their independ- 
ence.] 

Towns . — Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish 
Empire, is situated on the strait of Constantinople, between 
the Black Sea, and Sea of Marmora. It is well fortified, and 
has one of the best harbours in Europe. Pop. 500,000. 

Adrianople is situated on the Marissa, and in regard to 
population, it is the second city in Turkey in Europe. Pop. 
150,000. 

Athens, formerly the capital of Attica, and birth-place of 
the most distinguished orators, heroes and sages of antiqui- 
ty, is now a small insignificant town, containing about 10,000 
inhabitants. It is distinguished for its magnificent ruins; 
some of which are the most splendid remains of antiquity. 

Which is the principal River in Turkey ? d. — What 
Mountains'* ii. — W hat Cape S. of Turkey? m. — W hat 
Town on the Pruth ? j. — W hat 5 Towns on and near the 
Danube ? i. s. u. w. b. — W hat Port on the Black Sea ? 
Varna. What City W. of Varna? s. — What City S. E. of 
Shumla, situated on the Gulf of Burgas ? b. — W hat City 
N. W. of Constantinople situated on the Marissa? a. — 
What City on the Eskir river N. W. of Adrianople ? s. — 
What Town S. of Sophia ? s. — What Town on the Gulf of 
Salonica S. W. of Seres ? s. — What Town on the Strait of 
'Otranto? a. — W here was Ancient Greece ? s. — What 7 

Towns in Greece? m. a. n. c. a. t. l. — How many square 
miles has Turkey? — What is the Population? What 
Strait connects the Sea of Marmora to the Black Sea ? A. 
The Strait of Constantinople. What Straits connect the 
Sea of Marmora and Archipelago ? A. The Dar-dan-ells'. 
Which are the 3 principal Islands in the Archipelago ? n. 

| »■«' ■ ■ I . ■ ... | , . 

* 1328 . 




168 


EUROPE. 


s. s. — What large Island S. of the Archipelago ? c. — What 2 
Islands in the eastern part of the Mediterranean Sea ? r. c. 


IONIAN REPUBLICK. 

The Ionian Republick, or the Republick of the 
Seven Islands, consists of seven small Islands in 
the Ionian Sea, W. of Greece, viz. Corfu, Ce- 
phalonia, Zante, St. Maura, Cerigo, Ithaca and 
Paxu. 

Cephalonia is the largest of these Islands, and 
Corfu is the seat of government. The popula- 
tion of these Islands is 800,000, composed prin- 
cipally of Greeks and Italians. The Republick 
is under the protection of Great Britain. 

Which is the most northern of the Ionian Isles ? c. — How 
many Islands constitute the Ionian Republick ? What are 
their names ? In what Sea are they ? In what direction from 
Zante is Candia? Malta? Great Britain? Which is the 
largest of these Islands 3 c. — Which is the seat of govern- 
ment ? 


GENERAL QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF EUROPE. 

Which Division of Europe extends farthest south ? 
s. 

Which Division extends farthest north ? 

What Divisions of Europe border on the Atlantic? 
What 3 Divisions border on the Gulf of Venice ? 
Which are the 2 most mountainous Divisions ? n. s. 

Where was ancient Greece ? 

What country did the ancient Romans inhabit ? 
Which is the first commercial nation in Europe ? e. 
Which is the most gay and polite nation in Eu- 
rope ? F 


EUROPE. 


169 


Which coiintry is most distinguished for canals ? n. 
*Which country has the most dense population ? 

* Which country has the least number of inhabit- 
ants to a square mile ? 

* Which has the most dense population, France or 
G. Britain ? 


Through what division will you pass in travelling 
on the coast from Cape St. Vincent to North Cape ? 

Through what divisions will you pass in travelling 
on the coast from Cape St. Vincent to Cape Mata- 
pan ? 

What Rivers will you cross in travelling on the 
coast from Gibraltar to Cape Skagen, the northern 
extremity of Denmark ? 

Which is the largest city in Europe ? l. 

Mention the 4 next in the order of their popula- 
tion. p. c. St. p. and m. 

Mention the 4 next in the same order. 

Which are the highest Mountains in Europe ? 

What Strait, 22 miles wide, separates two of the 
most powerful kingdoms in Europe ? 

What Lake in Europe lies north of the island of 
Cyprus ? 

What Town on the Elbe due north of Rome ? 

What constitutes the kingdom of Denmark ? 

What 3 Gulfs border on Italy ? 

Which extends farthest west, Ireland or Portugal? 

Which extends farthest north, Scotland or Den- 
mark ? 

A certain kingdom in Europe is less in size than 
an island that belongs to it, what are the names of 
both ? d. and i. 




*See page 136. 

15 


170 


EUROPE. 


I 

How will you sail from London to St. Peters- 
burg ? 

From St. Petersburg to Port Mahon on the island 
of Minorca ? 

From Port Mahon to Vienna ? 

From Vienna to Paris ? 

From Paris to Astrachan ? 

From Astrachan to Constantinople ? 

From Constantinople to London ? 

Through what must the waters of the Tornea riv- 
er pass to reach the ocean ? 

Which is the longest river in Europe ? 

Which is the next longest ? 

Which is the next ? 


There are two large Gulfs in Europe at nearly op- 
posite points, what are their names 1 

Through what divisions must an army pass in go- 
ing from Madrid to Moscow ? 

Which capital in Europe is situated half a mile 
above the level of the sea ? 

The initials of certain cities in Europe form the 
sentence bona.pakte~ was banished to st. Helena, 
what are their names and how are they situated ? 



ASIA 


171 





A Caravan. 

Q. How docs Asia compare with tbc other Grand Divis- 
ions of the globe ? 

A. it is the largest, richest, and most populous 
division of the globe. It is 7,500 miles in length, 
from east to west, and about 5,000 miles in 
breadth from north to south ; containing 16,728,- 
000 square miles. 

Q. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude does 
Asia lie ? 

A. Between 2° and 77° N. latitude, and be- 
tween 26° and 190° E. longitude. 

Q. For what is Asia remarkable? 

A. Asia is remarkable for having been the 

theatre of almost every event recorded in the 

Holy Scriptures. It was in Asia that our first 

parents were created ; here lived the patriarchs 

and prophets ; here appeared our Saviour, who 

suffered and died for the redemption of man ; 

and here began the light of that gospel which is 

ultimately to bless all nations: 

* 


172 


ASIA. 


Q. What is said of the productions of Asia ? 

A. Asia excels all other parts of the globe in 
the deliciousness of its fruits ; the fragrancy of 
its plants, spices and gums ; the salubrity of its 
drugs ; the quantity, variety and beauty of its 
gems ; the richness of its metals ; and the fine- 
ness of its silks and cottons. 

Q. What is the climate of Asia ? 

A. Asia has almost every variety of climate, 
from the intense heat of the torrid zone, to the 
extreme cold of the arctic regions ; but it is gen- 
erally much colder than Europe or Africa, in the 
same latitude. 


Square Miles and Population .* 


Countries. 


Siberia 

Chinese Empire 

Arabia 

Hindoostan 

Ind. Tartary 

Afghanistan 

Turkey 

Persia 

Beloochistan 
Empire of Japan 


S'q M. 


5000000 

4320000 

1030000 

1020000 

aooooo 

800000 

500000 

480000 

176000 

90000 


Pop. 


2697000 

200000000 

12000000 

101000000 

3500000 

14000000 

12000000 

18000000 

3000000 

24000000 


Q. How is the commerce of Asia carried on ? 

A. The foreign commerce of Asia is carried on chiefly by 
the nations of Europe and America ; the internal trade is 
conducted principally by tCaravans, which traverse not on- 
ly Arabia, Persia, Hindoostan and Turkey, but likewise the 
northern and central parts of Africa. 

* The extent and population in most cases is doubtful. 

A Caravan consists of a number of merchants or pilgrims, 
who travel on camels. Their number often amounts to seve- 
ral thousands. They are provided with arms to defend them- 
selves from the attacks of the wandering Arabs, and other 
tribes of robbers. 


ASIA. 


MAP OF ASIA 


How is Asia bounded ? 


Arabia ? 

Turkey ? 

Persia ? 
Beloochistan ? 
Afghanistan ? 
Hindoostan ? 
Farther India ? 
Chinese Empire ? 
1. Tartary ? 
Siberia ? 
Caucasus ? 


Capital ? Chief Towns ? 
Capital? Chief Towns? 
Capital ? Chief Towns ? 
Capital? Chief Towns? 
C api tal ? C h i e f To wn s ? 
Capital ? Chief Towns ? 
Capital ? Chief Towns? 
Capital? Ch i e f T owns? 
Capital? Chief Towns? 
Capital? Chief Towns? 
Capital ? Chief Towns? 



Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 
Rivers ? 


RIVERS. 

Where does tho river Jordan rise, in what direc- 
tion does it run, and where does it empty* ? Eu- 
phrates ? Tigris ? Indus ? Nerbuddah ? Kristna ? 
Godavery ? Ganges? Sanpoo, or Burrampooter ? 
Irrawaddy ? Mecon, or Cambodia? Hoang Iviang? 
Kiang Ku ? Hoan Ho, or Yellow river? Amoor, or 
Saghalien ? Anadir ? Lena ? Olensk ? Anabara ? 
Piacina ? Toongooska? Yenisei? Obi? Irtish? 
Ural ? Sihon ? Jihon ? Tedzen River ? 


SEAS. 

Where is the Red Sea? 
Where is the Sea of Arabia ? 
Where is the China Sea ? 
Where is the Blue Sea? 
Where is the Yellow Sea ? 
Where is the Sea of Corea ? 


* r l he Jordan rises in mount Herinon in the S. W. part of Tur- 
key and runs a southerly course, passing through the sea of I ibe- 
rias, or sea of Galilee, and empties into the Dead Sea. Its length 
is 12f> miles. 15* 


174 


ASIA* 


Where is the Sea of Okhotsk ? 
Where is the Sea of Kamtchatka ? 
Where is the Sea of Anadir ? 
Where is the Sea of Obi ? 

Where is the Sea of Kara ? 

Where is the Sea of Celebes ? 
Where is the Caspian Sea ? 

Where is the Sea of Aral ? 

Where is the Dead Sea ? 


BAYS. 

Where is the Bay of Bengal ? 
Where is Tominee Bav ? 
Where is lllano Bav ? 


LAKES. 

Where is Lake Baikal ? 
Where is Lake Tshanv ? 
Where is Lake Altan ? 
Where is Lake Palcati ? 
Where is Lake Durra ? 


GULFS. 

Where is the Persian Gulf? 
Where is the Gulf of Ormus ? 
Where is the Gulf of Cutch ? 
Where is the Gulf of Cambay ? 
Where is the Gulf of Siam ? 
Where is the Gulf of Tonquin ? 


PENINSULAS. 

Where is the Peninsula of Kamtchatka 
Where is the Peninsula of Corea ? 
Where is the Peninsula of Malaya ? 


ASIA. 



STRAITS. 

Where is Bhering’s Strait? 

Where is the Strait of Sangar ? 
Where is the Strait of Corea ? 

Where is the Strait of Maccassar ? 
Where is the Strait of Malacca ? 
Where is the Strait of Babelmandel ? 
Where is the Channel of Tartary ? 


CAPES. 

Where is Cape Taymour ? 
Where is Cape Skolatskoi ? 
Where is East Cape ? 
Where is Cape Lopatka ? 
Where is Cape Romania ? 
Where is Cape Comorin ? 
Where is Cape Rosalgat ? 
Where is Cape Kanseli ? 


MOUNTAINS. 

Where are the Altay Mountains ? 

Where are the Great Altay Mountains? 

Where are the Little Altay Mountains? 

Where are the Alak Mountains ? 

Where are the Belur Tag Mountains? 

Where are the Himmaleh Mountains ? 

Where are the Gaut Mountains ? 

Where are the Ramleah Mountains ? 

Where is Mount Sinai ? 

Where is Mount Taurus ?. 

Where is Mount Ararat ? 

What is the length and height of the Altay Mourn 
tains ? Himmaleh ? Ural ? 


176 


ASIA. 


DESERTS. 

Where is the great Desert of Cobi or Shamo ? 
Where is the Great Sandy Desert ? 

Where is the Sandy Desert? 

Where is the Salt Desert? 

Where is the Steppe of Issim ? 

Where is the Desert of Ahkaf ? 


ISLANDS. 

Where is the Island of Socotra? Laccadives? 
Maldives ? Ceylon ? Andaman ? Nicobar ? Sun- 
da Isles ; viz. Sumatra, Java, Banca, and Timor ? — 
Borneo? Celebes? Gilolo ? Booro? Coram? 
New Guinea ? Salibro Isles ? Pelew Isles ? Phil- 
ippine Islands ; viz. Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Leyte 
and Negros ? — Palawan ? Hainan ? Bashee Isles ? 
Formosa? Loo Choo, or Leeo Keeo ? Sulphur 
Isles? Bonin Isles? Japan Islands; viz Niphon, 
Sikoke and Kiusiu? — Jesso? Saghalien? Kurile 
Islands? Bhering’s? First Isle? Second Isle? 
New Siberia ? Nova Zembla ? 

ARABIA. 



The Camel . 


ASIA. 


177 


How is Arabia bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Arabia consists chiefly of immense deserts, in- 
terspersed with fertile spots like islands. It has 
no large rivers or lakes ; and ip many parts it is 
destitute of water. 

It is divided into 3 parts, viz. Arabia Petrcea 
in the north-western part; Arabia I)eserta,e un- 
bracing the interior and north-eastern part ; 
and Arabia Felix in the southern part. 

The climate is excessively warm on the plain, 
and subject to a destructive wind called the Sa- 
miel or Simoon, but mild and healthy on the 
mountains. 

The principal productions of Arabia are coffee , 
gum-ar-abic, frankincense , myrrh and aloes . 

The most useful animal of Arabia, is the % cam- 
el, and next to this, the horse , which is celebra- 
ted for beauty, swiftness, hardiness and docility. 

Character. — The Arabs are an ignorant, savage and bar- 
barous people. Those on the coast are pirates ; those in the 
interior are robbers. During the middle ages they were call- 
ed Saracens, and were distinguished for learning and science; 
but at present they are so illiterate, that but few can be 
found, who are able either to read or write. 

Towns.— Mecca is situated in a narrow valley, 40 miles from 
the Red Sea. It is a Avell built city, and is celebrated as the 
birth place of Mahomet. It is supported by pilgrims who resort 
thither from all parts pf the Mahometan world. Fop. 22,000. 

Medina, 180 miles N. of Mecca, is celebrated for contain- 
ing the sepulchre of Mahomet. Pop. 6,000. 

Mocha is the principal seaport of Arabia, and is celebra- 
ted for its excellent coffee. Fop. 6,000. 

* The Camel is theonly animal, that can endure the toil of trav- 
ersing the vast deserts. It can travel 6 or 8 days without water, 
and can carry 7 or 800 pounds upon its back. It kneels down to 
receive its load, and rises when it is put on. 


178 


ASIA 


What Mountains in the northern part ? r. — W hat Moun- 
tain near the northern extremity of the Red Sea? s. — 

What Town on the gulf of Suez ? s What Town on the 

Euphrates? b. — W hat place on the Persian gulf ? l. — O n 
the gulf of Ormus ? m.— W hat 3 Towns on the sea of Ara- 

bia ? h. h. k. — What Seaport on the straits of Babelmandel ? 
m. — W hat 3 Towns on the Red Sea? l. c. y. — What 5 
Towns near the Red Sea ? s. s. m. m. ii. — W 7 hat 2 Towns in 
the interior ? d. y. — What 2 Capes has Arabia ? r. k. 


TURKEY IN ASIA. 



Ruins of Palmyra. 

How is Turkey bounded ? tVhat is its Capital ? 

. Turkey is the most interesting portion of Asia. 
It includes within its limits, most of the places 
recorded in the Holy Scriptures. It comprises 
the Holy Land, the ancient residence of the Jews ; 
Syria, Asia Minor, Armenia, and Mesopotamia. 
It was once the seat of many flourishing and 
celebrated cities, which are now in ruins ; among 
which were Babvlon, Nineveh, Trov, Balbec, 
Palmyra, Antioch, and Tyre. 




ASIA. 


179 


* 


Turkey is a mild, healthy, and fertile country ; 
and is beautifully diversified with mountains, 
plains, hills and vallies. It is famous for its 
wines, fruits, pomegranates and olives. 

Agriculture is much neglected. The chief 
manufactures are carnets, silks and leather. 

Inhabitants. — The population consists of Turks, Greeks, 
Armenians, Jews, Curds, and Arabians. The Turks are the 
ruling’ people, and like those of Turkey in Europe, are 
honest, grave, and hospitable to strangers ; but haughty 
bigoted, indolent, and revengeful. 

1 'owns. — Constantinople. — (See Turkey in Europe.) 

Aleppo, the capital of Syria, is situated about 70 miles from 
the Mediterranean and is the largest city in Asiatic Turkey. 
It has a considerable share of commerce, and is distinguish- 
ed for its manufactures of silk and cotton. — Pop. 250,000. 

Bagdad, once the renowned seat of the Caliphs, arid one 
of the most splendid cities in the world, is situated on the 
Tigris, 300 miles N. W. of Bassora. It is the resort of car- 
avans from India. Persia, and Arabia, but retains little of its 
ancient splendour. Pop. 80,000. 

Damascus is delightfully situated in the midst of a fertile 
plain, about 50 miles from the sea. It is celebrated for its 
extensive manufactures of silk and cotton goods. It has 
an extensive commerce by means of caravans, and is one of 
the best built cities in the Turkish Empire. Pop. 200,000. 

Jerusalem , the ancient capital of Judea, is situated about 
40 miles from the Mediterranean. It was once the metrop- 
olis of the powerful kingdom of David and of Solomon, and 
had its temples built of the cedar of Lebanon, and ornament- 
ed with the gold of Ophir. It retains but little of its former 
splendor, and is distinguished for being the resort of pilgrims 
from various parts of the Christian world. Pop. dB,000. 

Palmyra, or Tadmor in the wilderness, is situated in the 
Syrian desert, about 150 miles S. E. of Aleppo. It is now 
only distinguished for its magnificent ruins, which surpass all 
other remains of antiquity. 

Which are the 2 principal Rivers in Turkey? r, i\ — 
What 4 Seas border on Turkey ? m. a. m. b. — W haii>3 Towns 
on the Tigris ? b. m. d. — Whafr City on and near the Eu- 


180 


ASIA. 


phrates ? h. and a. — What three places on the Mediterranean ? 
a. t. t. — What 3 Cities near the Mediterranean ? a. d. j. — 
What City on the Archipelago ? s. — What port on the Black 
Sea? t. — What 2 other Towns in the northern part ? An- 
gora and Amasia. What small Sea in the southwestern 
part? d. — What River empties into it ? A. The Jordan. 
What Mountains in the western part of Turkey? t. — H ow 
many square miles has Turkey ? What is its population ? 


PERSIA. 

How is it bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Persia, one of the most celebrated and power- 
ful kingdoms of antiquity, at present exhibits 
scarcely a vestige of its former greatness. 

It consists principally of immense desert plains 
and barren mountains, interspersed with numer- 
ous salt lakes and marshes. It is generally des- 
titute of trees and rivers. 

Some of the vallies and plains are fertile, and 
produce grain , wine, silk, tobacco , fruits , and 
drugs in abundance. 

The Persians are distinguished for the extent 
and variety of their manufactures, which consist 
of the most beautiful carpets , brocade, silk, shawls, 

porcelain, fyc. 

On the western coast of the Caspian Sea, are fountains of 
naptha, or pure rock oil. The earth around them when dug 
to the depth of 2 or 3 inches, readily takes fire on applying to 
it a live coak Here still reside the Persees or fire worship- 
pers. 

Character .- — The Persians are polite, gay, polished, and 
hospitable, but indolent, vain, avaricious, and treacherous. 

Towns. — Teheran is situated 60 miles S. of the Caspian 
sea, and 300 N. of Ispahan. Its situation is low, and its ap- 
pearance mean. Pop. 52,000. 

Ispahan, the ancient capital of Persia, and formerly one of 
the most splendid cities of the east, is situated on the Zende- 
roud, about mid way between the Caspian Sea and Per- 


ASIA. 


181 


sian gulf. It is at present much reduced, and a considerable 
part of the city is in ruins. Pop. 200,000. 

Bushire is the principal sea port. Pop. 6,000. 

What River forms part of the boundary between Persia 
and Arabia? e. — W hat River forms part of the boundary 
between Persia and J. Tartary? Ted'zen. What city on a 
branch of the Tedzen ? m. — W hat city in the N. W. part? e. 
— What sea-port on the Persian gulf? b. What 2 Cities in 
the interiour? i. k. — What City on the Straits of Ormus ? g. 
— What Desert in the interiour? What mountain in the N. 
W. part of Persia ? a. — For what is Mt. Ararat remarkable ? 

AFGHANISTAN. 

How is Afghanistan bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Afghanistan is a modern kingdom of Asia, and 
like Persia, is greatly diversified with mountains, 
valleys, hills and deserts. 

It has almost every variety of climate, and soil. 
The principal productions are wheat, barley , and 
various kinds of fruit. 

Character . — The Afghans are a brave, tierce and warlike 
people, and are distinguishd for their hospitality, not only to 
strangers, but to their most implacable enemies. 

C. Town. — Cabul is situated on the river Cabul, a branch 
of the Indus, and has a considerable trade with India, Persia, 

and Tartary. Pop. 200,00J. 

— — 

What Lake in Afghanistan ? d. — W hat River empties in- 
to it ? h. — What Town in the interiour ? k. — What River 
forms the boundary between Afghanistan and Ilindoostan ? 

. — Plow is Cabul situated 3 Herat? Balk? 

BELOOCHISTAN. 

How is Beloochistan bounded ? Its Capital ? 

Beloochistan has seldom been traversed bv 

• 

Europeans, and therefore but little is known re- 

16 


182 


ASIA. 


spectfirg it. As far as it has been explored, it is 
generally mountainous and barren. 

Inhabitants . — Beloochistan is inhabited by two tribes, tho 
Beloochees, who subsist by plunder and robbery ; and the 
Brahooes, a peaceable and industrious people, who inhabit 
the mountainous districts, and subsist principally on their 
flocks and herds. 

Town. — Kelat is situated on the river Maksid. It is 
generally well built, and contains about 24,000 inhabitants. 

What Desert in the southern part of Beloochistan ? s. — 
What River forms the boundary between Beloochistan and 
Hindoostan ? i. — W hat City near the mouth of the Indus ? 
t. — What City in the interiour, 8. of Kelat? b. 

HINDOOSTAN. 



The Hanian Tree . 

How is Hindoostan bounded ? its Capital ? 

Hindoostan is the most beautiful country in 
Asia, and has been famous in all ages lor its civ- 
ilization, valuable productions, and for its wealth, 
and extensive manufactures. 


ASIA. 


183 




Hindoostan is mostly a level country ; and is 
distinguished for its numerous rivers and the gen- 
eral fertility of its soil, which produces two crops 
in a year. 

The climate in the northern part is mild and 
healthy ; in the south it is warm, and the heat is 
often oppressive. 

Almost every variety of production is found 
here ; the most important, are rice , cotton , wheat , 
sugar , indigo , opium , tobacco , millet , and various 
kinds of fruit. 

r 

The Banian Tree is the most singular and beautiful pro- 
duction in India. The branches extend to the earth, and 
take root, and thus form new trunks, so that each tree is a 
grove. One of these trees, on an island in the Nerbuddah 
river, has 3,000 trunks, and 7,000 persons may repose under 
its shade. 

Hindoostan has long been celebrated for its diamonds , 
which are found principally at Golconda. 

The British Possessions in India consist of Bengal, Baliar, 
and Benares, on the banks of the Ganges, of which Calcutta 
is the capital ; of others on the coast of Coromandel, of which 
Madras is the capital ; of the island of Bombay, Surat, and 
several districts on the Malabar coast, of which Bombay is 
the capital. 

Ceylon belongs to Great Britain. It is a rich, 
healthy, and fertile island, and is distinguished for 
the yariety and value of its productions, the most 
important of which are cinnamon , ginger , pcp T 
per , sugar , cotton , fyc. It has valuable pearl 
fisheries , and is rich in precious stones and gems. 

Columbo, the capital, is a handsome and well fortified 
place, but has a poor harbour. Pop. 50,000. 


ASIA. 


184 



The four Castes. 


Inhabitants. — The Hindoos are indolent, spiritless, and su- 
perstitious. They are mild and servile to superiours, but 
haughty and cruel to their inferiours. They are the most 
ingenious manufacturers of muslins, silks, shawls, &c. 

The Hindoos are divided into 4 classes or castes ; 1. The 
Bramins, or priests ; 2. the soldiers ; 3. the merchants and 
Agriculturists ; 4. the sudras or labourers. These castes are 
kept entirely distinct, and are never allowed to intermarry, 
or even to eat and drink with each other. 

Towns. — Calcutta is situated on the Hoogly, an outlet 
of the Ganges, about 100 miles from its mouth. It has an 
extensive commerce, and is one of the most splendid cities in 
Asia. Pop. 650,000. 

Benares, the ancient seat of Braminical learning, is situated 
on the Ganges, 460 miles N. W. of Calcutta. It has an ex- 
tensive trade in diamonds, gems, Szc. and is a place of great 
wealth. Pop. 600,000. 

Delhi, formerly the capital of Hindoostan, and seat of the 
Mogul empire, is situated on the Jumna, a branch of the 
Ganges. Pop. 150,000. 

What are the Rivers of Hindoostan ? i. n. k. g. g. — What 
Mountains between Hindoostan and the Chinese Empire, the 
highest on the globe ? n. — What Mountains in the southern 
part of Hindoostan ? g. — What Desert in the N. W. part of 
Hindoostan? g-s. — What 2 Gulfs on the western coast of 


185 


ASIA, 


Hindoostan ? c. and c. — What Gulf between Hindoostan 
and Ceylon ? A. The Gulf of Ma-naar'. What 3 Cities on 
the Indus and its branches ? c. l. m. — What 4 Towns on the 
Ganges and its branches ? b. a. a. d. — What Town on the 
gulf of Cambay ? c. — What City on Taptee river, which 
empties into the gulf of Cambay ? s. — What 4 Towns on the 
Malabar coast ? a. g. c. c. — What 5 Towns on the Coroman- 
del coast? c. g. o. m. p. — What 5 Towns in the interiour ? 
n. b. h. n. s. — What 2 clusters of Islands S. W. of Hindoos- 
tan ? Jj. m. — W hat large Island S. of Hindoostan ? c. — What 
Town on Ceylon ? c. — What Point at the southern extremi- 
ty of Ceylon ? Dondra Head. How many square miles has 
Hindoostan ? What is its population ? W hat small king- 
dom in the northern part o-f Hindoostan : Napaul. 


FARTHER INDIA. 



The Tiger's Visit. 

How is Farther India bounded ? Its Capitals ? 

This vast portion of Asia* extending from the 
Bay of Bengal to the China Sea, is scarcely 
known to Europeans, except along its shores. 

It is divided into the Birman empire, kingdoms 

16 * 



186 


ASIA. 


of Tonquin, Cochin China, Cambodia, Laos, Si- 
am, and the peninsula of Malacca. 

As far as Farther India has been explored, it is 
extremely fertile, and produces wheat , rice , cotton , 
sugar, tobacco , indigo , spices, gums , and various 
tropical fruits. It has mines of gold, silver, tin , 
copper, iron, and precious stones. 

The climate in most parts is extremely warm, 
but it is said to be generally healthy. 

It abounds in wild animals ; the most numerous and dan- 
gerous of which, is the tiger, which attacks indiscriminately 
either man or beast. It is famous for its elephants, which 
are used as beasts of burden both in peace and war. 

The Birman Empire embraces the four ancient kingdoms 
of Ava, Pegu, Arracan and Cassay. It is inhabited by a 
brave, warlike people, who arc noted for activity, enterprise 
and intelligence. 

Ummerapoora, the capital of the Birman empire, is situa- 
ted on the Irrawady, 400 miles from its mouth. It was 
founded in 1783, and in 1800 the population was 175,000. 

R.angoon, on the Irrawady, 30 miles from its mouth, is 
the principal seaport of the Birman empire. Pop. 36,000. 

Which arc the 2 principal Rivers in Farther India * i. and 
c. — In what part of F. India is the Birman Empire ? What 
City in the western part of the Birman Empire on the bay of 
Bengal? Arracan. What 3 Cities on the Irrawaddy ? r. 
u. f. — I n what part is Tonquin? Cochin China? What is 
the Capital of Cochin China? Hue, or Tai-Foo. What 
To wn at the mouth of the Cambodia river ? Saigon. What 
Town on the Me in am river at the head of the gulf of Siam ? 
8. — Where is Malacca ? What is the Capital of Ma T acca ? 
A. Malacca., situated on the straits of Malacca. What other 
Town? Pat.ani. What Cape south of Malacca ? r. — What 
Straits betwe n Malacca and Sumatra ? m. — What 2 Gulfs 
on the coast of Farther India? s. and t. — What Island in 
the gulf of Tonquin? h. — W hat 2 clusters of Islands W. 
ofF. India in the Bav of Bengal ? a. n. What large Island 
S. W. of Malacca ? s. — What Town in the northwestern 


ASIA 


187 


part of Sumatra? A-cheen'. What is the length of the 
China Sea ? 

. CHINESE EMPIRE. 

How is the Chinese Empire bounded ? Its capital ? 

The Chinese Empire embraces China, Thibet, 
Corea, and Chinese Tartary ; and is one of the most 
extensive and populous empires on the globe. 

CHINA. 



Economy oj time and labour . 

IIo w is China hounded ? What is its Capital ? 

China is celebrated for the great antiquity of 
its government ; for its immense population ; for 
the variety of its manufactures and peculiar pro- 
ductions; for the excellency of its inland naviga- 
tion, and for its reserve and jealous policy to- 
wards all other nations. 

China has a mild, healthy climate, and a rich, 



188 


ASIA. 


fertile soil, which is under the highest state of 
cultivation. 

The productions are numerous ; the most cel- 
ebrated among them is tea , which is the leaf of a 
shrub, that grows from 8 to 12 feet high. 

The principal exports are teas , silks, and porce- 
lain , or China-ware . 

One of the greatest curiosities of China, is the Chinese 
wall. It is 1,500 miles in length, and from 20 to 30 feet in 
height, and sufficiently wide for six horsemen to ride abreast. 
It is said to have been finished 214 years before the Christian 
era. It was built as a defence against the T artars. 

Character. — The Chinese are mild, intelligent, courteous, 
and extremely industrious ; but generally vain, timid, art- 
ful, and jealous of strangers. 

Towns . — Peking, the capital of the Chinese Empire, is 
situated in a fertile plain, about 50 miles from the great wall. 
It is 14 miles in circumference, and is surrounded by a w 3 .ll 
30 feet high. It is the most populous city on the globe. 
Pop. 3,0G0,0J0. 

Nanking was formerly one of the most splendid cities in 
China, but it is now much decayed. It is distinguished for 
the extent of its manufactures, particularly silks, crapes , and 
nankeens. It is famous for its Porcelain Tower, which is 200 
feet high. Pop. 2,000,000. 

Canton, situated on Canton river, is the first commercial 
city in China, and the only one to which Europeans and 
Americans are permitted to trade. The chief article of ex- 
port is tea. Pap. 1,000,000. 

Which arc -the 3 principal Rivers in China ? h. k. h. 
What City in the N. E. part ? Shin Yp.ng. What City on 
the Hoang Kiang river ? y. — W hat City N. W. of Canton ? 
p. — What City N. E. ? f. — W hat 2 Cities S. E. of Nan- 
king ? h. and Ning po-fou. What 3 Cities are situated on 
the Kiang Ku and its branches ? n. ip. t. — What 2 Cities 
near the Hoan-Ho, or Yellow river? s. y. — What 3 Seas 
border on China? y. b. c.— What large Island near the coast 
of China? f. — W hat cluster cf Isles E, of the Blue Sea? 
l-c. — What Island in the bay of Canton ? m. — In what part 
is the Imperial Canal? What stupendous work of antiqui- 
ty do you find in the northern part ? What article in com- 


ASIA. 


189 


mon use among us is produced only in China? Upon what 
does it grow ? Which of the cities of China is distinguished 
for its high Tower ? 


THIBET. 



Grand Licima . 

How is Thibet bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

This is one of the most elevated divisions of 
Asia. The Himmaleh mountains in the southern 
part are the highest range on the globe ; Dawal- 
ageri, the principal summit, is 5 miles high. 

It is a cold and barren country, but abounds in 
a variety of animals ; the most noted among them 
is a species of goat ; from the hair of which, the 
Cashmere shawls are manufactured. 

The religion of Thibet consists in worshipping the Grand 
Lama, who is regarded by his worshippers as the vicegerent 
of God. 

Lassa, the capital, is distinguished as the residence of the 
Grand Lama, and is generally thronged with people from 
various parts of Asia, who come to worship his sacred ma- 
jesty. 



190 


ASIA. 


What 4 large Rivers rise in Thibet ? s. r. c. k. — W hat 
Mountains between Thibet and Hindoostan? h. — What 
small kingdom in the southern part of Thibet, subject to the 
Grand Lama ? b. — H ow is Lassa situated ? What small 
kingdom among the Mountains W. of Thibet? l-t. 

CHINESE TARTARY. 

How is Chinese Tartary bounded ? 

Chinese Tartary is a thinly populated country, 
consisting principally of a vast elevated plain be- 
tween the Himmaleh and Altay mountains. 

Little is known respecting the country or the 
inhabitants. Most of the tribes are said to lead 
a wandering pastoral life, and to be worshippers 
of the Grand Lama. 

In what part of Chinese Tartary is Soongaria ? Little 
Bucharia ? Little Thibet ? Kalmucks ? Mongolia ? Mant- 
chooria? What extensive Desert in C. Tartary ? Which is 
the principal River? a. — What Mountains between C. Tar- 
tary and I. Tartary? b-t. — What Mountains in the western 
part of C. Tartary ? g-a. and What Mountains foi in 
part of the boundary between C. Tartary and Russia ? 
What Town in Little Bucharia on the river Cashgar ? c.— 
What 2 Towns in Mongolia? k. k. — What 2 Towns near 
the Chinese Wall? c. z. — What 4 Town9 on the *4.mour and 
its branches? m. o, n. s. — What Channel east of C. Tartar 
ry? What 2 large Islands ? s. j. — W hat Lake in the wes- 
tern part of C. Tartary ? Palcati. What Town near L. Pal- 
cati? Harcash. In what Empire is Chinese Tartary inclu- 
ded ? 


COREA. 

Corea is little known. It is said to be a heal- 
thy, fertile, and populous country. 

The capital is King-ki-ta'o. 

What 2 Seas border on Corea ? y. c. — What Straits be- 
tween Corea and the Japan islands? c. 


ASIA. 


191 


EMPIRE OF JAPAN. 



Sedan Chair . 

The Empire of Japan consists of the islands of 
Niphon, Jesso, Kiusiu, and several smaller ones 
adjacent. 

It is a rich, populous, and remarkable Empire, 
holding no intercourse with any nation, except 
the Dutch and Chinese. 

The climate is mild and healthy, and the soil 
productive. Agriculture is held in high estima- 
tion, and no portion of the soil, except the most 
barren wastes, is left uncultivated. 

The chief productions are rice , millet , wheat , 
barley , fyc. it has valuable mines of gold , silver , 
iron and copper ; and most of the islands abound 
in coal . 

Inhabitants . — The Japanese arc the most civilized people 
of Eastern Asia, and are remarkable for their industry and 
ingenuity. They excel most nations in the manufacture of 
silk and cotton goods, and in Japan and porcelain ware. 
Great attention is paid to education; and they have several 
schools for the higher branches, as Rhetoric, Astronomy,- 
Mathematics, &c. 



192 


ASIA 


Towns . — Jedo is a large, populous, and commercial city 
in the eastern parj of the island of Niphon. It is the seat of 
flourishing manufactures, and contains many splendid edifices. 
Pop. 1,000,000. 

Miaco, the ecclesiastical and literary capital of the empire, 
is situated in the interiour, 160 miles S. W. of Jedo. It has 
an extensive commerce, and is distinguished for the extent 
aad value of its manufactures. Pop. 500,000. 

Nangasaki, on the island of Kiusiu is a large and commer- 
cial seaport, and the only place where the Dutch are permit- 
ted to trade. 

What Strait between Niphon and Jesso ? San-gar'. What 
Town in the northern part of Niphon? n.— How is Jed-o' 
situated ? Where is Mi-a'co ? What seaport on the island of 
Kiusiu? Nan-gasa'ki. Which is the jlargest of the Japan 
Islands? What Strait between the Japan Islands and Co- 
rea ? How do the Ladies go to make their morning visits 
in Japan ? [See the cut.] 

INDEPENDENT TARTARY. 



Tartars exercising with the how and lance . 

How is Independent Tartary bounded ? Its Capital ? 

Independent Tartary is inhabited by several 
different tribes of Tartars ; the two principal ot 



ASIA. 


193 


which are the Usbecks, in the south, and the 
Kirgees in the north. 

The climate in most parts is mild, and the soil 
generally fertile. Agriculture and manuiactures 
receive but little attention. 

This country w r as formerly the seat of the 
most powerful empire in Asia, under Ghengis- 
Khan, Tamerlane, and others, and still presents 
many monuments of its ancient civilization. 

Character. — The Tartars are a wandering people, and 
rove from place to place with their flocks and herds. Their 
employment consists in tending their flocks, hunting and ex- 
ercising with the bow and lance. They are ignorant and 
superstitious ; but brave, and remarkable for their hospitali- 
ty to strangers and travellers. 

Chief Towns. — Bukhara, the capital of Great Bukhara, 
is 100 miles W. of Samarcand, on the Sogd. It contains 
many colleges for instruction in the Mahometan law. Pop. 
200,000. 

Samarcand is situated on the Sogd, a branch of the Jihon 
or Amoo river. It was once the capital of the empire of 
Tamerlane, and was a celebrated seat of science, but retains 
little of its former magnificence. Pop. 150,000. 

What Sea W. of Independent Tartary? What in I. Tar- 
tary? What 2 Rivers empty into the Aral Sea? s. j. — 
What 5 Towns on the Jihon and its branches? k. s. b. s. f. 
What 2 Towns on the Sihon? t. o. — What Mountains be- 
tween I. Tartary and the Chinese empire? What Moun- 
tains unite with the Belur Tag Mountains on the north ? u. 
On the south ? n. — On the east ? a. — What outlets have the 
Caspian and Aral Seas? How many square miles has I. 
Tartary? What is its population ? What is the favourite 
amusement of the Tartars ? [See the cut.] 


IT 


194 


ASIA; 


SIBERIA. 



Travelling in Kamlckatka . 

How is Siberia bounded ? Its Capital ? 

Siberia is a cold, desolate, forlorn and extensive 
region, and is inhabited by a number of barbarous 
tribes, who are subject to Russia. 

It is mostly a level country, consisting of vast 
plains, or steppes, many of which are entirely des- 
titute of vegetation. 

Siberia has rich mines of gold , silver , copper , 
lead and iron; and abounds in wild animals, ma- 
ny of which are highly valuable on account of 
their furs; particularly the martin , sable , beaver 
and ermine . Besides these, there are elks , wolves , 
bears , reindeer, foxes, hares, tyc. In Kamchat- 
ka, dogs are used for drawing carriages. 

Character . — The inhabitants are generally ignorant, fil- 
thy, and barbarous. 

Towns — Tobolsk, the capital of Siberia, is noted as a 
place of banishment for criminals sent from Russia, and is 
the centre of the Russian fur- trade. Pop. 16,000. 


ASIA. 


195 


Irkoutsk, the chief town of Eastern Siberia, is the princi- 
pal mart of commerce between Russia and China. It is the 
most splendid and prosperous city of Siberia. Pop. 20,000. 

What 2 Seas border on Kamtchatl^a? o. k. — W hat small 
sea in the eastern part of Siberia ? a. — What River empties 
into the sea of Anadir? a. — What 2 Seas in the N. W. part 
of Siberia ? k. o. — What 6 Rivers empty into the Arctic 
ocean? l. o. a. r. y. o. — Which is the most northern Cape 
of Russia ? t. — W hich is the most eastern ? e. — T he most 
southern? l. — What 2 Towns in Kamtchatka? n-k. and 
Pe-tro-pau'lowsk. — What town on the sea of Okhotsk? o.- 
What Town N. of it? s. — What 4 Towns on the Lena and 
its branches? s. y. v. k. What Town on lake Baikal? i. — 
What Town on the Olensk ? o. — What Towns on the 
Yenisei and its branches? t. j. l. t. y. a. — What 11 Towns 
on the Obi and its branches? o. b. s. t. t. t. o. k. b. k. t. — 
What Mountains separate Siberia from Russia in Europe ? 
u. — What is their length, and height? Where is the Steppe 
oflssim? Where is Lake Baikal ? LakeTshany? Lake Al- 
tan ? How many square miles has Siberia ? What is its pop- 
ulation ? Row do they travel in Kamtchatka? 


CAUCASUS. 

Caucasus embraces the country between the 
Caspian and Black seas, and is inhabited by a 
number of different nations, who are subject to 
Russia. 

It is a rough, broken, and mountainous coun- 
try, entirely destitute of plains. The climate in 
the vallies is mild and healthy, and' the soil 
fertile. 

The Circassians and Georgians arc the two principal na- 
tions in this division. The Circassians inhabit the northern 
declivity of the Caucasian mountains, and are a ferocious and 
barbarous people. 

The Georgians possess the country south of the Cauca- 
sian mountains, and are friendly and hospitable, and said to 
be the handsomest people in the world. 


196 


ASIA. 


These nations are celebrated for the beauty of their fe- 
males ; numbers of whom are sold by their parents to the 
Turks and Persians, and are considered the brightest orna- 
ments of their seraglios. 

Teflis, the capital of Georgia, is situated on the river 
Kur. It is strongly fortified, and contains a number of 
churches, and is the residence of the Russian governor. 
Pop. 18,000. 


What 3 Seas border on Caucacus? b. a. c. — What is the 
length of the Black Sea? What is the length of the Cas- 
pian Sea ? What 2 Towns on the Caspian Sea? Ba'kou 
and Der'bent. In what part is Teflis? In what part is Cir- 
cassia? In what part is Georgia? For what is Georgia 
celebrated ? 


GENERAL QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF ASIA. 

Which Division of Asia extends farthest south? m. 

Which is the most western Division ? t. 

The capitals of the C. Empire and I. Tartary are 
in the same latitude with a certain city in the U. 
States ; what are the names of all three ? 

How will you sail from Bagdat to Calcutta ? 

From Calcutta to Lassa ? What important char- 
acter do you find here ? How will you sail from 
Lassa to Nanking? What celebrated building do 
you find here ? 

The initials of certain cities in Asia form the sen- 
tence, Cyprus took Babylon ; what are their names 
and how situated ? 

Which is the largest city in Asia? 

Which are the 6 next largest ? 

What is the length of the Altay Mountains? 
Himmaleh Mountains? Ural Mountains? How 
high is the highest peak of the Himmaleh Mountains? 
Second peak ? How high is Mt. Arrarat ? Gauts? 


ASIA. 


19 $ 

ASIATIC, OR EAST INDIA ISLANDS. 

The Asiatic or East India Islands, are those 
which lie between Asia and New Holland, and 
consist principally of five groups ; viz. 1. The 
Sunda isles. 2. The Moluccas, or Spice islands, 
3. Celebes. 4. Borneo, and a number of small 
islands adjacent. 5. The Manillas, or Philippine 
islands. 

The soil in most of these islands is remarkably 
fertile, and produces in abundance all the richest 
fruits of the torrid zone, and the finest spices and 
gums. 

These islands are rich in minerals, and abound 
in wild animals, among which are the rhinoceros, 
tiger, orang outang, and crocodile. 

The climate is extremely warm, and generally 
unhealthy, especially to foreigners. 


A Tabular view of the principal East India Islands. 

Sunda Isles. 


A 'aines. 

Possessed by 

| Sq. m. 

| PopulaL 

Ch. Toicns. 

Sumatra, 

Natives, 

180,000 

4,500000 

Bencoolen. 

Java, 

Dutch, 

52,000 

4,230000 

Batavia. 

Banca, 

Dutch, 

5,600 

80,000 


Timor, 

Dutch Sz For. 

6,000 

100,000 

Litas. 


Moluccas , or Spice Islands. 


Amboyna, 

Dutch, 

450 

45,000 

Amboyna. 

Ceram, 

Dutch, 

4,000 

120,000 


Gilolo, 

Dutch, 

12,000 


Santanag. 

Banda Isles, 

Dutch, 





Borneo, | Natives. 


Borneo. 

| 300,000 | 3,000000 | Borneo. 


198 


AUSTRALASIA. 


Celebes. 


Names. \ Possessed by 

Sq. m. | 

Popula. j Ch. Towns . 

Celebes, | Dutch, 

90,000 | 

3,000,000 | Maccassar. 

Manillas , or Phillippine Islands . 

Luzon, 

Spaniards, 

70,000 

1,200,000 | Manilla. 

Mindinao, 

Spaniards, 

30,000 

900,000 | Mindinao. 

Samar, 

Spaniards, 

800 

84,000 | - 

Negros, 

Spaniards, 

500 

75,000 | 


Which is the most eastern of the Sunda Isles ? t. — Where 
is Banca ? A. South of Cape Romania. For what is it dis- 
tinguished ? A. For its extensive mines of tin. Where are 
the Moluccas or Spice Islands ? For what are they cele- 
brated? A. For the richest spices. What Sea north of Ce- 
lebes ? c. — What Straits between Celebes and Borneo ? m. 
What Island N. of Borneo ? p. — Which is the largest of the 
Phillippine Isles ? l. — What Cape N. of Luzon ? e. — What 
large Island N. of Luzon? f. — What small Islands between 
Luzon and Formosa? b. — Which is the largest of the East 
India islands ? b. — What is its chief Town ? b. 

&ugtral*uifci. 

Australasia embraces New Holland, Van Die- 
men's Land, New Guinea, New Britain, New Ire- 
land, Solomon’s Island, New Hebrides, New 
Zealand, and numerous smaller islands surround- 
ing them in all directions. 

NEW HOLLAND. 

New Holland is the largest island on the globe, 
being 2,600 miles in length from east to west, 
and 1,960 in breadth from north to south, con- 
taining 3,000,000 square miles. 


AUSTRALASIA. 


199 


New Holland was Discovered in 1606 by the 
Dutch. Little is known respecting the island, 
except the coasts. 

The climate is mild and healthy, and the soil 
fertile, producing wheat , maize , barley , oranges , 
lemons , and other tropical fruits . 

The country along the eastern coast for an in- 
definite extent, is claimed by Great Britain, and 
is called New South Wales. 

An English colony has been established at Port 
Jackson, or Botany Bay, consisting principally of 
convicts banished from Great Britain. 

The natives are small, ill shaped, and among the most de- 
graded of the human species. They have no regular reli- 
gion, and but a faint idea of a future state. 

Sidney is the chief town and capital of the English col- 
ony. Pop. 7,000. 


van diemen’s land. 

Van Diemen’s Land is a healthy, fertile island, 
170 miles in length, and about 150 in breadth. 
An English colony was established here in 1803, 
and in 1818 it contained about 6,000 inhabitants, 
about one half of whom were convicts from G. 
Britain and New South Wales. 

The natives resemble those of New Holland. Hobart 
Town is the capital of the colony. It was laid out in 1804, 
and now contains a number of elegant buildings. 


PAPUA, OR NEW GUINEA. 

Little is known respecting New Guinea or the 
adjacent islands. They are said to be populous 
and fertile, producing most of the fruits of the 
torrid zone. The inhabitants are negroes, and 
generally resemble those of New Holland. 


200 


POLYNESIA. 


NEW ZEALAND. 

New Zealand consists of 2 large islands, sepa- 
rated by Cook’s strait. These islands are moun- 
tainous, and have a mild, healthy climate. 

The natives are tall, well formed, and possess uncommon 
sagacity and strength of mind. They are cannibals, and 
when provoked are extremely ferocious. 

An English settlement has been established here for intro- 
ducing the blessings of civilization and Christianity. The 
natives manifest a strong desire for improvement, and have 
made considerable progress in the arts of civilized life. 


Questions on the J\Iap of the W orld . — In what part of New 
Holland is New South Wales ? To whom does it belong? 
What is the capital of the English colony ? s. What name 
has been given to the southern part of the island ? n. — What 
names to the W. coast? d. e. — What Gulf in the N. part? 
c. — What Straits separate New Holland from New Guinea ? 
t. — What straits between N. Holland and Van Diemen’s 
Land? b. — Which is the largest, New Holland or the U. 
States and Territory ? What is the chief Town on Van Die- 
men's Land? What Cape S. of VanDiemen’s Land? South 
Cape. How wide is the Strait between N. Holland and V. 
D. Land ? A. 100 miles. In what direction from N. Hol- 
land is New Guinea ? In what direction from,.N. Guinea is 
N. Britain ? New Ireland ? Solomon’s isle ? What Straits be- 
tween the islands ol New Zealand ? What 3 Capes around 
them ? n. e. s. — What Bay in the northern part? p. 


Polgneata** 

Polynesia embraces the numerous islands of 
the Pacific lying east of the Asiatic islands and 
Australasia. 


* Derived from 2 Greek words, signifying many islands. 


POLYNESIA. 


201 


The principal groups are the Pelew islands, and 
the Ladrones, Carolinas, Sandwich islands, and 
Mulgraves isles, lying north of the equator ; and 
the Marquesas, Society isles, Friendly isles, and 
Navigator’s isles, south of the equator. 

These islands have generally a fertile soil, and 
a mild, healthy climate. The most important 
productions are the bread-fruit , cocoa-nuts , ba- 
nanas *, oranges , fyc. 

The inhabitants are tall, well formed, and generally of 
amiable dispositions. They were formerly pagans, and were 
accustomed to sacrifice human victims to their gods. But 
in the Sandwich and Society Islands they have destroyed 
their idols, and have received Christian Missionaries among 
them. Many have been taught to read and write ; and num- 
bers have been converted to Christianity. 

Questions on the Map of the World. — In what direction 
from Mindinao are the Pelew Isles? Where are the La- 
drones ? Which are the 3 principal islands among the La- 
drones ? f. o. g. — Where are the Carolinas? What cluster 
of islands in the Pacific about midway between Asia and 
America? s. — When and by whom, were the Sandwich 
islands first discovered ? A. In 1778, by Capt. Cook and 
Capt. King. Which is the most noted of the Sandwich 
islands? o. — Which are the next? a. m. — In what direction 
from the Sandwich islands are Mulgrave’s isles ? What 7 
Islands N. of Mulgrave’s isles ? s-b. c-r. b. r. d. St. p. c. c. 
What considerable Island S. E. of Mulgrave’s isles? c. — 
Where are the Marquesas or Washington isles? Where are 
the Society isles? Which is the principal Island among the 
Society isles ? o. — What cluster of Isles S. W. of the Socie- 
ty isles? f. — W hich is the principal Island among the 
Friendly isles ? t. — What group of Isles N. E. of the Friend- 
ly isles ? n. — What 4 Islands N. W. of Navigator’s isles ? 
s. d. b. d. — What group of Islands on botli sides of the Equa- 
tor near the coast of South America 5 g. 


•202 


AFRICA. 


-Q. How does Africa compare with the other Grand di? 
visions of the globe ? 

A. It is the second of the five grand divisions of 
the globe, being 4,320 miles in length ; and 4,140 
in breadth, containing 11,500,000 square miles. 

Q. Between what degrees of latitude and longitude does 
Africa lie 

A. Between 35° S. latitude and 37° £ N. lati- 
tude; and between 18° W. longitude and 51° E. 
longitude. 

Q. Is Africa as enlightened and civilized now as it was in 
ancient times ? 

A. It is not. The inhabitants in the northern 
part of Africa, w r ere anciently among the most 
enlightened on the globe. Ethiopia was much 
celebrated ; Egypt brought to Europe the first 
germs of civilization, and Carthage extended her 
commerce over every part of the known world. 
But now , notwithstanding its ancient celebrity, it 
is the least known, least civilized, and the least 
important of the five grand divisions of the globe. 

Q. To what is our knowledge of Africa principally con- 
iine d ? 

A. Principally to the countries lying on the 
coast ; the interiour being almost entirely unex- 
plored. 

Q. For what is Africa remarkable ? 

A. For its immense sandy deserts, which com- 
prise nearly one third of its surface. The prin- 
cipal of w r hich is Sahara, or Great Desert, which 
stretches from the Atlantic nearly to the Nile ; 
and is about 3,000 miles in length, and 1 ,000 in 
breadth. 


AFRICA. 


203 


[The deserts are like seas, the sands being moved by the 
winds like waters; and storms on them are more terrible and 
destructive than on the ocean. They have Oases , or fertile 
spots, like islands, which serve as resting and watering pla- 
ces for Caravans, that travel over them. ] 

Q. By whom is Africa peopled? 

A. The northern part from the Mediterranean to the De- 
sert, is peopled by Moors and Arabs ; Egypt by Copts and 
foreigners ; Abyssinia by degenerate Arabs ; the southern, 
western, and central parts, by the Negro race. 

Q. What wild animals are found in Africa? 

A. Almost every species. Lions, tigers, elephants, pan- 
thers, and hyenas reign undisturbed in its vast deserts. 

Its rivers abound with crocodiles and hippopotami. The 
largest and most venomous serpents are found here. The 
most useful of the tame animals, is the camel. 

Q,. What can you say of the climate ot Africa ? 

A. It is warmer than that of any other division of the 
globe, as all its productions both animal and vegetable bear 
testimony. 

Q. What is the probable population of Africa? 

A. It is supposed to be 99,000,000. 


MAP OF AFRICA. 


How is Africa bounded? 


Morocco ? Capital ? 
Algiers ? Capital ? 
Tunis ? Capital ? 
Tripoli ? Capital ? 
Barca ? Capital ? 
Egypt ? Capital ? 
Nubia ? Capital ? 
Abyssinia ? Capital ? 


Principal Towns ? 
Principal Towns? 
Principal Towns? 
Principal Town ? 
Principal Town ? 
Principal Towns ? 
Principal Towns ? 
Principal Towns ? 


Where is Fezzan ? What is its Capital ? 

Where is Senegambia? Its chief Towns ? 

Where is Sierra Leone ? What is its chief Town ? 
. Where is Liberia ? What is its chief Town ? 


204 


AFRICA. 


Where is Guinea ? What are its 4 principal king 
doms ? 

Where is Loango ? What are its chief Towns ? 
Where is Congo ? What is its Capital ? 

Where is Benguela ? Its principal Towns ? 
Where is Cimbebas ? What 2 Capes has it ? 
Where is South Africa? How is it divided? 
Where is Monomotapa ? Its chief Towns ? 
Where is Mozambique ? Its chief Town ? 
Where is Zanguebar ? Its chief Towns ? 

Where is Ajanand Adel? 

Where is Ethiopia ? What Town in it ? 

Where is Nigritia? Its principal Towns ? 
Where is Darfur? What is its Capital ? 




RIVERS. 

Where does the Nile rise, in what direction does 
it run, and where does it empty? Niger? Senegal? 
Gambia? Grande? Mesurado? Lagos? Formosa? 
Congo ? Coanza ? Orange ? Zak ? Keiskamma ? 
Zimbezi ? 


ISLANDS. 

Where are the Azores ? 

Where are the Madeira Isles ? 

Where are the Ca-na'-ry Isles ? 

Where the Cape Verd Isles ? 

Where are Fernando Po, Prince’s, St. Thomas 
and Anabon Isles ? 

Where is St. Matthew Isle ? Ascension Isle ? 
Where is St. Helena ? For what is it remarkable ? 
Where is Madagascar ? What Towns on it ? 
Where is the Isle of France, and Bourbon Isle ? 
Where are the Comoro Isles ? 

Where are the Cosmoledo Isles ? 

Where are Providence, and Assumption Isles ? 


AFRICA, 


205 


Where are Almirante Isles, and Mahe Isles? 
Where is the Island of Socotra ? 


Where is Cape Bon l 
Where is Cape Guardafui ? 

Where is Cape of Good Hope ? 

Where is Cape Verd ? 

Where is Cape Spartel ? 

Where is Cape Bedouin, and Cape Bassa ? 

Where is Capo Delgado ? 

Where is Cape Lagullas ? 

Where is Cape Serra, and Cape Frio ? 

Where is Cape Ledo ? 

Where is Cape 3 Points ? 

Where is Cape Palmas, and Cape Mesurado ? 
Where is Cape Roxo ? 

Where is Cape Blanco, Cape Barbas, and Cape 
Bojadar ? 

Where is Cape Ambro ? 

Where is Cape St. Mary ? 


DESERTS. 

Where is Sahara or Great Desert ? 
W here is the Lybian Desert ? 


MOUNTAINS. 

Where are the Atlas Mountains ? 

W here are the Mountains of the Moon ? 
Where are the Mountains of Kong ? 
Where are the Chrystal Mountains ? 
Where are the Brenas Mountains? 
Where are the Lupata Mountains? 

18 


AFRICA. 


LAKES. 

Where is Lake Tchad ? 
Where is Lake Dembea ? 
Where is Lake Maravi ? 


GULFS. 

Where is the Gulf of Cabes ? 
Where is the Gulf of Sidra ? 
Where is the Gulf of Biafra? 
Where is the Gulf of Guinea ? 
Where is the Gulf of Benin ? 


BAYS. 

Where is Delagoa Bay ? 
Where is Algoa Bay 1 
Where is Table Bay ? 
Where is Walwieh Bay ? 


STRATTS. 

• 

Where is the Strait of Babelmandel T 
Where is the Strait of Gibraltar ? 
Where is the Channel of Mozambique 


/ 


AFRICA 


207 


EGYPT. 



Pyramids and Sphynx. 

I 

How is Egypt bounded ? What is its Capital? 

Egypt is celebrated for its great antiquity; 
for the early civilization of its inhabitants, and 
for its being the parent of the arts and sciences. 
But like most other seats of early renown, it has 
lost much of its former greatness, and is now dis- 
tinguished only for the magnificence of its ruins. 

Egypt is divided into two parts, Upper and 
Lower. Upper Egypt extends from Nubia to 
Cairo, and Lower Egypt, from Cairo to the Med- 
iterranean. 

The cultivated part of Egypt, consists princi- 
pally of a fertile vale, 15 or 20 miles in breadth, 
on both sides of the river Nile. The remainder 
of the country is mountainous and barren. 

The climate in summer is extremely warm; in 
winter, it is mild and agreeable. 


208 


AFRICA. 


The chief productions are maize , rice , wheat , 
barely , <^c. and most of the fruits of the torrid 
and temperate zones. 

Rain is very uncommon in Egypt, but owing to the an- 
nual flood of the Nile, and the heavy dews, the soil seldom 
suffers for want of moisture. The Nile annually over- 
flows its banks and spreads over the country like a sea. 
The rise of the Nile commences about the middle of June, 
and begins to subside about the first of September. The 
lands thus overflowed are extremely fruitful and easily cul- 
tivated. Manufactures are in alow state. 

Inhabitants. — The inhabitants consist of Copts, Arabs, 
Turks and Jews. The Copts are the most numerous class, 
and are the descendants of the ancient Egyptians. — They 
are active, ingenious, and well skilled in business. 

Towns . — Cairo is the most populous, splendid, and com- 
mercial city in Africa. Pop. 300,000. 

Alexandria was built by Alexander the Great 331 years 
B. C. and for a long time was the seat of learning, com- 
merce, and magnificence. It is now greatly decayed, and 
abounds in the ruins of its ancient grandeur. Among which 
are Pompey’s Pillar 75 feet high, two obelisks, the Cata- 
combs. In the height of its splendour, it is said to have con- 
tained 600,000 inhabitants; the present population is about 
15,000. 

[The Library of Alexandria surpassed all others of the 
ancient world. It was founded by Ptolemy Philadelphus 
.284 years B. C. and contained 700,000 manuscript volumes. 
It was burnt by the Saracens, A. D. 640.] 

Antiquities. — Egypt abounds with the most stupendous 
monuments of antiquity, as Pyramids, Temples, Obelisks, 
Catacombs, &c. The Pyramids have been the wonder of 
all ages of the world. The largest of them, is that of Che- 
ops near Cairo. It is 500 feet high, and covers more than 
11 acres. When , by whom and lot what purpose, they were 
erected, is entirely unknown. Near one of the pyramids, is 
the celebrated Sphynx, a statue of a huge monster, cut out of 
a solid rock. It has the face of a Virgin, and body of a lion, 
and is 125 feet in length. 

What 2 Cities on the Mediterranean ? b. a. — What City 
at the mouth of the Nile? r. — What 4 Cities on the Nile ? 


AFRICA. 


209 



Boa Constrictor . 

Which arc the Barbary States? m. a. t. t. b. 

The northern part of Africa, now included in 
the Barbary States, once contained several king- 
doms and states, eminent for power, wealth and 
commerce. But these have been repeatedly con- 
quered, and scarcely exhibit a vestige of their 
former greatness. 

The inhabitants of the Barbary^States are di- 
vided into four classes ; viz. Moors, Jews, Arabs, 
and Brebers. They are ignorant, rapacious, and 
cruel, and have long been noted for their pira- 
cies, and political debasement. 

Between the Atlas mountains and the Medi- 
terranean, the climate is mild and pleasant ; 

18 * 


c. s. t. s. — What Town in the S. W. part? s. — What Town 
on the gulf of Suez? s. — What Town on the Red Sea? c. 


BARBARY STATES. 



216 


AFRICA. 


and the soil is fertile, but miserably cultiva- 
ted. 

The chief productions are oil , wine, fruits, su- 
gar, cotton and most kinds of grain . 

Between the Atlas mountains and the Desert the country 
produces little except dates , but these grow in such abun- 
dance, that it is called Biledulgerid , or the land of dates . 

These States are distinguished for the number of noxious 
animals which infest the mountains and desert tracts ; the 
most noted and ferocious among them are lions, panthers, 
and hyenas. 

Venomous serpents of an enormous size, are also common. 
The boa or serpent of the desert, is often 80 feet long and 
moves with such incredible swiftness that no animal can es- 
cape from it. 

Among the great variety of insects in these States, the 
most formidable is the locust , which often comes from the 
desert in such immense swarms, as to devour every species of 
•vegetation. 

O 


BARCA. 

How is Barca bounded ? What is its Capital? 

Barca, the ancient Lybia, is nominally depen- 
dent on Tripoli, though it seems to be the propei*- 
ty of no government or people. The interiour 
is mostly a desert, and once contained the tem- 
ple of Jupiter Ammon. 

The coast of Barca, once famed for its three- 
fold crops, is still fertile, but badly cultivated. 

The sovereignty is divided between two Beys, one of 
whom resides at Derne ; the other at Bengazi. 

Derne, is situated about half a mile from the Mediterra- 
nean, and contains about 5,000 inhabitants. It was takdn 
in 1805, by Gen. Eaton, a native of Brimtield, Mass. 

What Gulf west of Barca? — What Town on the gulf 

of Sidra? b. — In what part is Derne ? What 2 Towns near 
the southern boundary of Barca? a. s. — What division of 


AFRICA. 


211 


Europe opposite to Barca? g. — What large Island north of 
Barca? c. — What Desert south of Barca ? l. 


TRIPOLI. 

How is Tripoli bounded? What is its Capital? 

Tripoli, the ancient Tripolis, is the most civili- 
zed, but the weakest of the Barbarv states, and 
abounds m the remains of antiquity. 

Tripoli, the capital, is a regular, well built and fortified 
city, and has an excellent harbour. Pop. 15,000. 

What 2 gulfs N. of Tripoli? c. s. — What town northwest 
of Tripoli? s. — What Kingdom south of Tripoli? if. 


TUNIS. 

How is Tunis bounded? Its Capital? 

Tunis the ancient Africa Propria, and the 
seat of the Carthaginian power, is one of the 
most powerful states of Barbary. 

Tunis, the capital, is situated about 6 miles from the gulf 
of Tunis, and is one of the first cities in Africa. It has con- 
siderable trade, and valuable manufactures. Population 120, 
000 . 

About 12 miles N. E. of Tunis are the ruins of ancient 
Carthage, which was founded by Dido, 869 years before 
Christ. For a long time, Carthage was the emporium of 
northern Africa, the empress of the sea, and the formidable 
rival of Rome. It was destroyed by the Romans under 
Scipio Africanus, at the close of the third Punic war, 146 
years B. C. 


What Gulf in the eastern part of Tunis? c. — What 
Cape north of Tunis ? n. — What large Island between Tu- 
nis and the southern part of Italy? s. — What small Island 
east of Tunis? m. — What separates Tunis from Fezzan? 
What ancient city once stood near the northern part? c. — 
When and by whom was Carthage founded ? By whom was 
it destroyed ? 


212 


AFRICA. 


ALGIERS. 

How is Algiers bounded ? What is its Capital ? 

Algiers, the ancient Numidia, is the most fer- 
tile and healthy of the Barbary States, and is no- 
ted for the valuable coral fishery on its coast. 

Algiers, the capital, is a strongly fortified town, and one 
of the most noted seats of piracy. It has a good harbour 
and considerable commerce. Pop. 50,000. 

Constantia is a large city of the interiour, and occupies the 
site of ancient Cirta. It is 160 miles E. of Algiers, and is 
said to contain 100,000 inhabitants. 


What Mountains in Algiers? a. — What 2 Towns on the 
Mediterranean? a. o.— What Town in the interiour ? c. — 
What Gulf on the coast of Guinea directly south of Algiers? 
b. — In what direction from Algiers is Liberia? Darfur ? 
The colony of Sierra Leone? Fezzan? Where was Cirta 
situated, the ancient capital of Numidia? 


MOROCCO. 

How is Morocco bounded ? What is its Capital? 

The empire of Morocco,, the ancient Maurita- 
nia, embraces the kingdom of Fez , Morocco , Taji - 
let and Tarudant , and is noted for the fertility of 
its soil, and its abundance of fruits , grain , ol- 
ives , fyc. 

Morocco, the capital, is situated in the midst of a fertile 
plain, about 120 miles from the Atlantic. It is surrounded 
by a high wall, and contains many splendid temples and 
mosques, but is much decayed. Pop. 75,000. 

Fez, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Fez, is the most 
splendid city in the Barbary States. It is situated in a beau- 
tiful valley, and was once famous for its learned institutions. 
Pop. about 100,000. 

What 3 cities in the southern part ? t. t. n. — What 4 Cities 
on the Atlantic ? n. s-c. m. s. — What Town on the Straits of 
Gibraltar? t. — What Town in the northern part, in the in- 
tenour ? f. — W hat Mountains in Morocco ? a. — What Straits 


AFRICA. 


between Morocco and Spain? What English Fortress on 
the Straits of Gibraltar? g. — V* hat Islands VV. of Morocco? 
m. p-s. — What Cluster of islands S. W. of Morocco? c. — 
Which is the most celebrated among them ? TenerifFe. 


SENEGAMBIA. 



Elephant . 

Senegambia embraces a number of small pop- 
ulous states, and in general, is a well watered 
and fertile country. The climate is intensely 
warm , and at most seasons of the year, extremely 
unhealthy to foreigners. 

Respecting the various tribes of negroes, that inhabit thi3 
coast, little is known with certainty. The most numerous 
tribes are the Foulcths , Jallops, Feeloops , and Mandingoes. 
They are ignorant, superstitious and indolent ; and are ac- 
quainted with but few of the arts of civilized life ; but their 
natural dispositions are mild and benevolent. 

The principal articles of export, are gum, gold, ivory, and 
Slwes 1 

Senegambia abounds in almost every species of wild ani- 
mals. Elephants are extremely numerous, and furnish al- 
most all the ivory of commerce. This region is much in. f est-^ 
ed by venomous insects, disgusting reptiles, and clouds oi 

locusts. 


\ 


214 


AFRICA. 


Teembo is the capital of Foota Jallo, and is represented as 
one of the largest cities in this part of Africa. The popula- 
tion is said to be 70,000. 

[The Foulahs, or inhabitants of F oota Jallo, are widely dif- 
fused over Africa. The great body of the nation lives about 
the sources of the Gambia, and Rio Grande. Besides these, 
there are tribes of them south of Fezzan, and on the confines 
of Bornou; likewise on the Niger and Senegal. They are 
said to be mild , humane, polite, industrious and hospitable .] 

What 3 rivers in Senegambia ? s. g. g. — W hat 2 Capes on 
the coast ? v. r. — W hat small Island between C. Verde and 
C. Roxo, once the greatest military station of the French in 
Africa? Goree isle. What cluster of Islands W. of Sene- 
gambia? c-v. — What Town situated on an island at the 
mouth of the Senegal, the capital of all the French posses- 
sions in Africa? St. l. — W hat Town near the Senegal? k. — 
What British Settlement at the mouth of the Gambia? b. — 
What large Town in the southern part, the capital of Foota 
Jallo? t. 


SIERRA LEONE. 

The English settlement of Sierra Leone was 
formed in 1787 for the express purpose of civili- 
zing the Africans, and of facilitating the abolition 
of the slave trade. The colony contains about 
17,000 inhabitants, composed chiefly of liberated 
negroes, taken from captured slave-ships. 

Here are about 20 missionaries, actively engaged in the 
benevolent employment of instructing the Africans in the 
elements of learning and religion, and in the arts of civilized 
life ; and their labours thus far have been attended with en- 
couraging success. 

Freetown, the capital of Sierra Leone, is situated near 
the mouth of Sierra Leone river, and has an excellent har- 
bour and about 5,000 inhabitants. 

Where is Sierra Leone? What Island on the coast? s. 
What is the principal Town in Sierra Leone ? f. 


AFRICA. 


215 


fim 


jjWf ' LIBERIA. 

In 1820 a settlement was commenced at the 
mouth of the river Mesurado by the “ American 
Colonization Society, 7 ’ by the name of Liberia. 

The object of this settlement is to furnish a 
place for the colonization of the free Africans and 
emancipated slaves of the United States. Num- 
bers have been transported thither and the col- 
ony is # now in a prosperous condition. 

Where is Liberia? What names have been given to the 
coast? q. and i. — What 2 Capes on the coast? p. m. — What 
f is the principal River? m. — W hat is the chief Town? u. — 
l In what direction from Liberia is Sierra Leone ? St. Mat- 


thew’s isle? Ascension? St. Helena? 


ti 


GUINEA. 

Guinea embraces a number of small kingdoms, 
the principal of which, are Ashantee, Dahomey, 
Benin, and Biafra. 

Ashantee is the most powerful, civilized and commercial 
kingdom in the western part of Africa. The capital of 
Ashantee , is Coommassie, which is said to contain 40,000 in- 
habitants. 

Dahomey is a powerful and fertile kingdom, and is inhab- 
ited by a savage, ferocious and warlike people. The capital 
of Dahomey, is Abomey, which is merely a large collection 
of huts. 

( Benin is scarcely known to Europeans: but it is repre- 
sented as a fertile and well watered country, and said to be 
inhabited by an industrious and humane people. The capi- 
tal is Benin. 

Biafra borders on the gulf of Biafra, and is almost whol- 
ly unknown. Its capital is Biafra. 

The coast of Guinea is divided into the Grain, the Ivory 
and Gold Coast; each portion being named from its princi- 
pal article of commerce. The coast of Guinea is extremely 
fertile and thickly inhabited. The climate is hot, and in 
most parts unhealthy to foreigners. 

What mountains between Guinea and Nigritia? k. — 

* 1820 . 


21(5 


AFRICA. 


What 4 Rivers in Guinea ? m. l. f. g. — What Cape on the 
coast? 3. p. — W hat 2 Gulfs on the coast? b. b. — What 
large Gulf S. of Guinea^ g. — What 2 Towns on the coast? 
c-c. p. — In what part is AshanJtee? What is its Capital? 
Benin? Riafra? Dahomey? W hat 3 Islands on the coast 
of Guinea? f-p. p. St. p. 


CONGO. 



Method of Carrying the Nobility . 

The Coast of Congo embraces Loango, Congo, 

Angola and Benguela. 

It is an extensive, fertile and populous country. 
The natives are rude and barbarous, and ex- 
tremely stupid. 

It abounds in wild animals, venomous serpents, 

&c. 

St. Salvador, the capital of the kingdom of Congo, is 
situated in the interiour on the top of a high mountain. Its 
} ositlon is extolled as one of the most healthy in the world. 
I he Portuguese have several settlements in Congo, for the 
purpose of carrying on the slave trade, the capital of which, 
and of all their settlements in this part of Africa, is Loando 
St. Paulo. This city contains about 18,000 inhabitants, and 
lias an extensive commerce, principally in slaves. 



AFRICA 


217 




Where is Loango ? Angola? Benguela? What Bay on 
the coast of Loango ? St. c. — What 3 Towns in Loango ? 
s. b-l. and m. — What 2 Rivers has Congo? z. c. — What 
Cape on the coast of Congo ? l. — What Mountains sepa- 
rate Congo from Ethiopia? c. — What is the Capital of Con- 
go? St. s. — What Portuguese Settlement in the W. part? 
l. St. i*. — What River separates Benguela from Ethiopia ? 
c. — What Settlement on the Coanza? p-n. — What 2 Towns 
in Benguela? n-b. and St. p. 

How do they carry the nobility in Congo ? [See the Cut.] 


CIMBEBAS. 

The country between Congo and South Africa has been 
called Cimbebas, from the name of a powerful tribe, which 
is said to inhabit the interiour. The inhabitants are said to 
be extremely ignorant, and filthy, and have no other clothing 
than the skins of animals. 


What 2 Capes on the coast? f. s. — What point in the 
N. W. part ? What Bay on the coast ? w. — flow do you 
like the water in Cimbebas ? Why ? What Tribe of Hotten- 
tots in the S. Part ? d. 




218 


AFRICA. 


South Africa embraces the country south of 
the tropic of Capricorn, and is divided into the 
Cape Colony, Caffraria and the country of the 
Hottentots. 

The Hottentots are divided into various tribes ; the 
principal of which are the Damaras and Namaquas tribes in 
the N. W. part, the Koranas in the southern part, and the 
Boroolongs in the northern part. The Hottentots, general- 
ly speaking, are an ignorant, stupid, and filthy people. They 
build their houses in a circular form with the doors opening 
towards the centre, and thus form a kind of court into which 
tkeir cattle are collected at night to preserve them from the 
beasts of prey. 

Caffraria is little known. The inhabitants generally 
resemble the other tribes of Hottentots in their manners, but 
are more hardy and enterprising. 

What are the Rivers of South Africa? r. o. z. y. — What 
large Hottentot Town in the interior usually considered 
the capital of S. Africa? l. — W hat tribe of Hottentots in 
the N. VV. part ? d. — W hat tribe in the W. part ? n. — What 
Tribe in the southern part ? k. — What tribe in the northern 
part? b. — W hat is the principal Town among the Boroo- 
longs ? k. — What town between Kur-ree-cha'nee and Lat- 
ta-koo' ? What Town on the Yellow river ? c. — What 
Mountains in South Africa? b. — W hat Port or Harbor on 
the coast of Caffraria ? What River between Caffraria and 
the Cape Colony ? k. 

THE CAPE COLONY. 

The Cape of Good Hope was discovered in 1497 by the 
Portuguese. It was afterwards colonized by the Dutch 
but in 1806 it was taken by the English, in whose power it 
still remains. It is the most important possession of the 
English in Africa, being the place where the East India fleets 
stop for refreshment. 

The climate is temperate and salubrious and the soil is 
generally fertile. 

The chief articles of export are wine , and bran - 

dy. . 

Cape Town is regularly and handsomely built, and is an 


AFRICA. 


219 


important and commercial town. Pop. 18,000. [Cape 
Town was founded in 1652, and peopled by exiles from Hol- 
land. M. Malte Brun.l 

t J 

What 2 Rivers in the Cape Colony ? z. k. — What 3 Bays 
in the Cape Colony? ii. a. t. — What 2 Capes? What 
Mountains in the northern part of the Cape Colony and 
Caffraria? A. The Snow Mountains. What Town in the 
S. W. part? What Town among the Snow mountains in 
the N. part? g-r. — W hat Missionary station in the S. E. 
part ? b. — What Gulf in Africa N. of the Cape of Good 
Hope? s. 


Eastern Africa. 

The eastern coast of Africa extending from 
Caffraria to Abyssinia contains a number of sep- 
arate kingdoms, of which we have but little 
knowledge. 

Monomotapa is said to be a populous and fertile country, 
and to contain mines of gold of considerable value. At So- 
fala, the Portuguese have a settlement. 

Mozambique embraces a large extent of country, and is 
nominally subject to the Portuguese. 

The city of Mozambique is the capital of all the Portu- 
guese possessions in this part of Africa. Pop. 3,000. 

Zanguebar is said to be an unhealthy country, and to 
abound in wild animals, serpents, crocodiles, &c. 

Melinda* is the capital of a kingdom of the same name 
which is partially dependent on the Portuguese. 

Ajan is a Mahometan state, and has a considerable trade 
in gold, ivory, and ambergris. Many parts of it are barren 
and desolate. 

Adel is a fertile and populous kingdom, and is noted for 
its frankincense and myrrh. 

How is the eastern coast of Africa divided ? m. m. z. a. a. 
What River between Monomotapa and Mozambique? z. 
What Town on a branch of the Zimbezi ? z. — What Portu- 
guese Settlement on the Channel of Mozambique ? s. — What 
are the 2 chief divisions of Monomotapa? s.and s. — What 
Mountain in Monomotapa ? A. Mount Fura. WhatMoun- 


220 


AFRICA. 


tains in Mozambique ? l. — What Lake between Mozam- 
bique and Ethiopia ? m. — What tribe in the western part ? 
b. — W hat Cape on the coast ? d. — W hat Portuguese Settle- 
ment on the Channel of Mozambique? m. — What 3 Towns 
on the coast of Zanguebar ? m. m. a. — What 3 Islands near 
the coast? d. p. z. — What 3 Capes on the coast of Ajan ? 
g. b. b. — What Mountains extend into Adel and Ajan? m. 
What Island near C. Guardafui? s. — What Town in the 
northern part of Adel, distinguished for its frankincense, 
gum-ara-bic and myrrh ? b. 


ABYSSINIA. 

Abyssinia, the Ancient Ethiopia, is a mountain- 
ous country, and has a fine healthy climate, and 
a rich fertile soil. 

The principal productions are wheat , and a 
small grain called teff \ balsam , myrrli , fyc. 

Among the other vegetable productions is the 
papyrus , so celebrated among the ancients, as 
the original material of paper. 

Inhabitants . — The Abyssinians are in the lowest state of 
civilization ; and in many of their customs, they are ex- 
tremely barbarous and brutal. They scarcely regard hu- 
man life ; and are fond of eating raw flesh, cut from the liv- 
ing animal, in its warm, palpitating state. They profess 
Christianity, but it is more in name, than in reality. 

Gondar is situated on a hill surrounded by a deep valley. 
It has a mean appearance, its houses being built of clay, and 
only of one story. Pop. 50,000. 

Axumu the former capital, is distinguished for its extensive 
ruins. 


What Lake in Abyssinia? d. — What Mountains S. of A- 
byssinia ? m. — What celebrated River rises in the mountains 
of the Moon ? n. — What Straits lead into the Red Sea? b. 
What Town near the Straits of Babelmandel ? z. — What 
Town in the N. part, on a branch of the Nile? a. — How is 
Gondar situated ? In what direction from Abyssinia is Li- 
beria ? 


AFRICA. 


221 


NUBIA. 

Nubia contains several kingdoms ; the two 
principal of which, are Sennaar and Dongola. 

Nubia is mostly an extensive tract of sandy 
and rocky deserts, and but thinly inhabited. 

The wind here moves the sand like the waves of the sea ; 
and so. rapidly that nothing can escape it. The Simoon or 
poisonous blast from the desert blows here, which, if received 
into the lungs, causes instant death. 

The climate is extremely warm, but generally 
dry and healthy. The soil on the banks of the 
Nile is rich and fertile. 

The principal articles of commerce are gold- 
dust, ivory and slaves . 

Nubia is celebrated for its magnificent remains 
of antiquity. 

The most noted among them is the temple of Ipstambul, 
which is cut out of a solid rock, and is 8G feet high, and 117 
wide. It is in a complete state of preservation, although it 
is supposed to have been built more than 2,000 years. 

Inhabitants . — The inhabitants consist of numerous tribes 
of Arabs, most of whom, are noted for their treachery, in- 
.temperance, and ferocity. 

Towns . — Dongola, the capital of the kingdom of Dongo- 
la, is situated on the Nile 280 miles south of Syene. It is a 
meanly built town, and is in a state of decay. [It is now in 
the possession of the Mamelukes, who have been expelled 
from Egypt.] 

Sennaar, the capital of the kingdom of Sennaar, is situa- 
ted on a branch of the Nile. It is a large, populous, and 
meanly built town, and has considerable commerce. 


What celebrated River passes through Nubia ? What 6 
Towns on the Nile? s. g. s. d. m. i.— What 2 Ports on the 
Red Sea ? m. s. — What Town between the Red Sea and 
Nile ? c. — What Town W. of the Nile ? s. — What Town W. 
of Dongola near the boundary of Nubia? t. — Which are 
.the 2 principal Kingdoms in Nubia? In what part is Don- 
gola ? What is its capital ? d. — I n what part is Sennaar'* 

19 * 


222 


AFRICA 


What is its capital? s. — What Division in Asia lies oppo- 
site to Nubia? What Kingdom lies S. W. of Nubia? 


©eutrai Africa* 



The Lion. 

The intcriour of Africa is very little known. 
It is divided by the Jibbel Kumra, or Mountains 
of the Moon, into Soudan, or Nigritia, on the 
north ; and Ethiopia oh the south. 

Ethiopia has never been visited by white men, and conse- 
quently, its geography is entirely unknown. 

Soudan, or Nigritia, is divided into a great number of 
small kingdoms ; most of which, have never been explored 
by Europeans. Those parts which have been explored are 
well watered, and extremely fertile, producing all the luxu- 
ries of the vegetable kingdom, and abound in almost every 
species of wild animals. 

The inhabitants consist of Negroes who are said to be more 
mild, and humane, than those living on the coasts. 

The Niger is the principal river in Soudan, or Nigritia ; 
and has. excited an extraordinary degree of interest, by rea- 
son of the various and contradictory accounts, relative to 
its source and termination. It rises in the mountains of 
Kong, and flows N. E. passing by Sego, and near Tombuc- 
too ; beyond which, the river has never been traced by an 
European. [By some, the Niger is supposed to be a branch 


AFRICA. 


223 


of the Nile ; by others, to lose itself in the marshes and sands 
in the interior ; Some suppose it empties into lake Tchad 
in Bornou : — Others think it is the same river as the Congo 
or Zaire ; — And others assert that it empties into the Gulf of 
Guinea.] 

' The principal kingdoms of Nigritia, known to Europeans, 
are Darfur , Bergoo , Begliarmi , Bornou , Houssa , Yaoor , 
Tumbuctoo , Bambnrra , Tauricks , Ashen , Kuar and Fezzan . 

Darfur is a considerable kingdom, and is inhabited by an 
industrious people, who are principally engaged in agricul- 
ture. Cobbe is the capital, and contains about 6,000 inhabi- 
tants. 

Bergoo is an extensive kingdoih, but little known. Wa- 
ra is its capital. 

Begharmi is a small kingdom dependent on Bornou. The 
capital is Babalia. 

Bornou embraces an extensive fertile tract, and is the most 
powerful and flourishing kingdom in Nigritia. Kouka is 
the capital ; and is said to be a large city. 

Houssa is a large kingdom, and is inhabited by an intelli- 
gent people, who have considerable skill in agriculture and 
manufactures. The chief town and great emporium of the 
kingdom of Houssa is Kano, which is said to contain 40,000 
inhabitants. 

* The Felatah Empire is of modern date. It is represent- 
ed as a powerful empire, and is said to hold several kingdoms 
in subjection. The capital is Sackatoo. It was built in 
1805, and is said to be a large, populous town. 

Yaoor is subject to the Felatah Empire. 

Tombuctoo is a large, fertile, and powerful kingdom, and 
one of the most civilized in Nigritia. Tombuctoo, the capital 
of the kingdom, is situated about 10 miles from the Niger. 
It is the centre of commerce for Nigritia, and is the resort of 
caravans from Egypt, Nubia, Barbary and Abyssinia. Pop- 
ulation supposed to be 200,000. 

Bambarra is a large, fertile, and powerful kingdom. Sego 
the capital, is situated on both sides of the Niger, and contains 
about 30,000 inhabitants. 

The Tauricks are a barbarous and powerful race, who 
wander over all the adjoining countries, and subsist mostly 
by plunder. 


* Clapperton’s travels in Africa, 


224 


AFRICA. 


Asben is a powerful kingdom, lying north of Bornou. 
The capital is Aghadem, and is a place of extensive trade. 

Kuar is an extensive tract, lying west of Dongola, consist- 
ing mostly of deserts, interspersed with a few fertile spots 
like islands. It is inhabited by the Tibboos, who are a wan- 
deringtribe, and possess all the regions S. and S. E. of Fez- 
zan. 

Fezzan is a large kingdom tributary to Tripoli. It con- 
sists of an extensive oasis, or fertile spot in the northern part 
of the Desert, surrounded on all sides, except the west, by 
mountains. It is chiefly important as the centre of trade, for 
the caravans which traverse the interior. The chief pro- 
ductions are dates. The capital is Mourzouk, and is the 
grand depot for the commerce carried on between the Barba- 
ry States and Central Africa. 


What Lake in Nigritia? <t. — What City situated on L. 
Tchad? What is the principal River ? n. — What 2 ranges 
of Mountains S. of Nigritia ? k. m. — What bounds Nigritia 
on the north? What Kingdoms in Nigritia? What are 
their Capitals? What other Towns? What Kingdom in 
the eastern part of Nigritia ? o. — What branch of the Nile 
rises in Darfur ? Where is Fezzan ? What is its Capital ? 
m, — W hat 2 other Towns? g. *t. — In what direction from 
Fezzan is Kuar ? The'Tibboos? The Tauricks ? What 4 
Towns south of Tegherhy ? b. a. s. h. — What 3 resting 
places in the Desert S. W. of Fezzan ? t. t. e-w. 


African Xslantrs. 

The Azores or Western Islands are 9 in number, and 
belong to Portugal. They have a fine climate and fertile 
soil, producing wheat , maize , barley , vines , oranges , kc. They 
are subject to earthquakes, by which they have often been 
laid waste. Angra, on the island of Tercera, is the capital. 
Pop. 160,000. 

The Madeira Islands consist of Madeira, Porto Santo, 
and the Desert Isles. Madeira, the principal island, is dis- 


*Te-ge're. 


AFRICA. 


225 


tinguished for its wines , whicli are exported to various parts 
of the world. The capital is Funchal. These Islands be- 
long to Portugal. Pop. 90,000. 

The Canary Islands are 13 in number, and belong to 
Spain. They are distinguished for their wines , fruits , and 
Canary-birds. Teneriffe is celebrated for its lofty peak, which 
rises about two and a half miles high above the level of the 
sea. Pop. 160,000. 

The CArE Verd Islands are 14 in number, and belong to- 
Portugal. r jfhey have an unhealthy climate, and generally a 
barren, rocky soil. The principal exports of these islands, 
are salt and goat-skins. Pop. 40,000. 

St. Helena is a lofty and rocky island, and belongs to 
the English. There is only one harbour, which is of difficult 
access and easy defence. This island is remarkable for the 
imprisonment and death of Napoleon Bonaparte. Pop. 3,000. 

Madagascar is one of the largest islands on ihe globe. 
It has a healthy climate and a fertile soil, and is said to be 
rich in minerals. 

It is inhabited by a number of petty tribes of different ra- 
ces — Arabians, Malays and Africans; most of whom are in 
a savage state, and but little acquainted with the arts of civ- 
ilized life. 

The chief productions are nee, sugar-cane , cocoa-nut , bana- 
na , and the common productions of tropical climates. Pop. 
4,000,000. 

Mauritius, or Isle of France belongs to the English. It 
is a rugged and mountainous island, producing tropical 
fruits ; likewise ebony , and other valuable kinds of wood. 
Pop. 70,000. 

Bourbon belongs to France. It is composed of two moun- 
tains ; one of which is a volcano, and is in constant action, 
and serves as a light-house to mariners. Pop. 80,000. 

Which are the 2 principal islands among the Azores? f. 
and St. m. — Which are the 4 principal islands among the Ca- 
naries? t. p. f. c. — Which are the 6 principal islands among 
the Cape Verd Isles? St. a. St. n. St. j. b. b. s. — Which is 
the most northern group of the African Islands? Which is 
the most eastern Island ? Which is the most western group ? 
Which is the largest? What 4 Capes has Madagascar? 
What 5 Towns has it? r. b. t. t. and p-d. — What 2 Islands 
E. of Madagascar ? To whom do they belong? What small 


f 


226 


AFRICA. 


Island near C. Verd, distinguished for being the principal 
French military station on the western coast of Africa ? g. 

GENERAL QUESTIONS ON THE MAP OF AFRICA. 

What part of Africa lies S. of the Tropic of Cap. 
ricorn 1 

What divisions N. of the Tropic of Cancer ? 

Between what 2 Capes is Africa the longest ? 

Between what 2 Capes the widest ? 

Where does the Niger rise, and in what direction 
does it run, so far as explored ? 

What entire zone does Africa embrace ? 

Does Africa embrace more of the northern or 
southern temperate zone ? 

What 2 Seas and their Straits border on Africa ? 

What prevents Africa from being a continent by 
itself? 

At what place does Africa approach nearest to 
Europe ? 

What is the most northern extremity of the Red 
Sea called ? A. Gulf of Suez. 

Which is the most noted River of Africa^ 

What is the length of the Nile ? 

What name has been given to that part of the In- 
dian ocean which lies between Madagascar and Mo- 
zambique ? 

How wide is the Channel of Mozambique ? A. 
270 miles. How long is it ? 

When It is summer at the Cape of Good Hope, 
what season is it at Cape Bon ? 

What Gulf due north of the Cape of Good Hope 1 

How will you sail from Rosetta to Suez ? 

On what Gulf is Suez situated ? A. Gulf of Suez. 


AFRICA. 227 

What celebrated Mountain is near the Gulf of Su- 
ez, in the N. W. part of Arabia ? s. 

Through what Divisions will you pass in travelling 
in a strait line from Suez to Morocco ? 

What was Morocco anciently called ? 

How will you sail from Tangiers to Tunis ? 

What celebrated Ruins are near Tunis ? 

What can you say respecting ancient Carthage ? 
How will you sail from Tunis to Cairo ? 

What renowned monuments of antiquity near 
Cairo? 

What can you say respecting the Pyramids ? 

How will you sail from Cairo to Sennaar? 

%/ 

What remarkable ruins of antiquity do you find in 
Nubia ? 

Describe the temple of Ipstambul. 

What destructive wind often blows in Nubia ? 

How will you sail from Sennaar to Gondar ? 

What is the character of the Abyssinians ? 

How will you sail from Gondar to Monrovia ? 
When was this Settlement commenced ? 

How will you sail from Monrovia to Cape Town f 
To whom does the Cape Colony belong ? 

When and by whom was it first settled ? 

Through what divisions will you pass in travelling 
on the coast from the Cape of Good Hope to Cape 
Spartel ? 

What celebrated English Fortress is on the oppo- 
site side of the strait of Gibraltar? g. 

In what direction from Gibraltar is your home ? 


228 


QUESTIONS. 


MW of the ffiarorUr.* 

Where are the Galapagos ? Marquesas ? Drum- 
mond’s ? Byron’s? Duke of York’s? Queen 
Charlotte’s ? Lord Howe’s Isle ! 

Where is Hood’s Isle ? Dog ? Society Isles ? 
Otaheite ? Navigator’s Isles? Vavao? Friendly 
Isles ? Feejee Isles ? Solitary Isle ? Santa Cruz ? 
New Hebrides ? 

Where is St. Felix ? St. Ambrose ? Easter Isle ? 
Ducies? Pitcairn’s? Tongataboo? Sunday Isle ? 
New Caledonia ?> ; Norfolk Isle ? 

Where is Juan Fernandez ? Chiloe ? Chatham ? 
Bounty ? New Zealand ? 

Where is Sandwich Land ? South Orkney Isles ? 
South Shetland ? 

Where is Calvert’s Isle ? Chatham’s ? Mul- 
graves ? Christmas ? 

Where is St. Bartholomew’s? Brown’s Isles? 
Pescadores ? Gaspar Rico ? Dawson’s Isle ? St. 
Pierre ? Owyhee ? Re-vil-la-gi-ge'-do Isles ? 
Where are the Sandwich Islands ? 

Where are the Aleutian, or Fox Islands? Bher- 
ing’s Isle ? 

Where is Tri -'an d’Acunha ? Amsterdam? St. 
Paul’s ? 

Where is Gough’s Isle ? Marseveen ? Dema ? 
Prince Edward’s ? Marion and Crozet’s Isles ? 
Kerguelen’s Isle ?• 

* In learning these islands, I have thought it more easy for 
the pupils, to ask them in general questions ; as. What Islands 
lie between the Equator and 10° S. latitude ? Between 10° 
and 20° S. latitude, &c. and have arranged them accordingly. 


QUESTIONS. 


229 


Where is Nova Zembla ? Where is Spitzbergen ? 

Which is the most southern Land yet discovered ? 
Which is the most northern Island yet discovered ? 
Which is the largest Island on the globe ? n. h. 
Which is the next largest Island ? b. 

Which is the next largest Island ? m. 

What 2 Islands due south of Nova Zembla? 

What 2 Islands S. of Ireland? St. m. and St. h. 



PART THIRD. 

LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 

N. B. — In answering the following questions, if the division 
does not lie wholly between the degrees mentioned in the 
question, the scholar will specify what part is included, 
whether the northern , middle, or southern part. 


DIVISIONS. 

What divisions lie between the Equator and 10° 
N. latitude ? 

What divisions between 10° and 20° N. lat. ? 
What divisions between 20° and 30° N. lat. ? 
What divisions between 30° and 40° N. lat. ? 
What divisions between 40° and 50° N. lat. ? 
What divisions between 50° and 60° N. lat. ? 
What divisions between the Equator and 10° S. lat? 
What divisions between 10° and 20° S. lat.? 

What divisions between 20° and 30° S. lat. ? 


CAPITALS. 

What capitals between the Equator and 10° N. 
latitude ? 


20 


230 


QUESTIONS. 


What capitals between 10° and 20° N. lat. ? 

What capitals between 20° and 30° N. lat. ? 

What capitals between 30° and 40° N. lat. ? 

What capitals between 40° and 50° N. lat. ? 

What capitals between 50° and 60° N. lat. ? 

What capitals between the Equator and 10° S, 
latitude ? 

What capitals between 10° and 20° S. lat. ? 

What capitals between 20° and 30° S. lat. ? 

What capitals between 30° and 40. S. lat. ? 


ISLANDS. 

What islands between the Equator and 10° N. lat ? 
What islands between 10° and 20° N. lat.? 

What islands between 20° and 30° N. lat. ? 

What islands between 30° and 40° N. lat. ? 

What islands between 40° and 50° N. lat ? 

What islands between 50° and 60° N. lat. 1 
What islands between 60° and 70° N. lat. ? 

What islands between the Equator and 10° S. lat. 1 
What islands between 10° and 20° S. lat. ? 

What islands between 20° and 30° S. lat. 1 
What islands between 30° and 40 Q S. lat. ? 


What divisions are intersected by the Equator? 
What divisions are intersected by the Tropic of 
Cancer ? 

What divisions are intersected by the Tropic of 
Capricorn ? 

What divisions are intersected by the 10° N. lat. ? 
What divisions are intersected by the 20° N. lat. ? 
What divisions are intersected by the 30° N. lat. ? 
What divisions are intersected by the 40° N. lat. ? 
What divisions are intersected by the 50° N. lat. ? 
What divisions are intersected by the 60° N. late, ? 
What divisions are intersected by 10° S. lat. ? 


I 


QUESTIONS. 


231 


What divisions are intersected by 20° S. lat. ? 

What divisions are intersected by 30° S. lat. ? 

Through what islands does the Equator pass ? 

Through what islands does the Tropic of Cancer 
pass ? 

Through what islands does the Tropic of Capri- 
corn pass? 

What divisions are intersected by 10° E. longitude ? 

What divisions are intersected by 20° ? 30° ? 
40° ? 50° E. longitude ? 

What divisions are intersected by 60° ? 70° ? 
80° E. long. ? 

What divisions are intersected by 40° W-. longi- 
tude ? 

What divisions are intersected by 50° ? 60° W* 
longitude ? 

What divisions are intersected by 70° ? 80° W. 
longitude ? 


GENERAL REVIEW. 

How is North America bounded ? 

How is South America bounded ? 

How is Europe bounded ? 

How is Asia bounded ? 

How is Africa bounded ? 

How is Connecticut bounded? France ? Peru? 
Arabia? Egypt? New-York ? Austria? Hin- 
doostan ? Morocco ? Pennsylvania ? Brazil ? 

Italy? Chinese Empire ? Algiers? Ohio? 

- 

CITIES. 

Where is Peking, and how is it situated ? London ? 
Jedo ? Paris ? Calcutta ? Miaco ? Constantino- 


232 


QUESTIONS. 


pie ? Ispahan ? Naples ? Cairo 1 Moscow ? Ma- 
dras ? St. Petersburg ? Lisbon ? Vienna ? Ma- 
drid ? Cabul ? Dublin ? Rio Janeiro ? Mexico ? 
Rome ? New-York ? Copenhagen ? Venice ? 
Delhi? Fez? Baltimore? Cork? Tunis? Bor. 
deaux ? Boston ? Stockholm ? Havannah ? Qui- 
to? Berlin? Rangoon? Washington? Buenos 
Ayres ? Philadelphia ? Trebizond ? Hartford ? 
Syracuse? Jerusalem? Athens? Canton? Liv- 
erpool? Providence? Caraccas? 

* Which is the most populous city on the globe ? 

Mention the six next in the order of their popula- 
tion. 

Which is the most populous city in Asia ? 

Which are the six next most populous cities in 
Asia ? 


Which is the most populous city in Africa ? 

Mention the four next in the order of their popu- 
lation. 

Which is the most populous city in Europe ? 

Mention the six next in the order of their popu- 
lation. 

Mention the six next in the same order. 

Which is the most populous city in S. America? 

Mention the six next in the order of their popula- 
tion. 

Which is the largest city in N. America ? 

Mention the six next in the order of their popula- 
tion. 


* The pupil should write off these cities, and annex the 
population of each. By so doing, he will arrange them in 
regular classes, and easily commit them to memory. 


QltESTIO’NS. 


233 


RIVERS. 

What is the length of the following Rivers, where 
do they rise, in what direction do they run, and 
where do they empty ? Amazon ? — Missouri ? — Mis- 
sissippi ? — Cambodia ? Hoang Ho ? Amoor ? Le- 
na? Kiang Ku ? Mc’Kenzies ? Arkansaw? Nile? 
Volga? Yenisei? Paraguay? Rio del Norte? 
Obi ? Parana ?* *— Danube ? Ganges ?* — Saschas- 
chawan ? Orinoco ? Madeira ? Euphrates ? Co- 
lumbia? Red? Ucayle ? Sanpoo? Tocantines?* 
Indus ? Severn ?*■ — White ? Albany ? Irawaddy ? 
Nelson ? Kongas ? Irtish ? Francisco ?* — Ten- 
nessee ? Yellowstone ? 


Which is the longest River on the globe ? a. 
Which is the second longest ? m. 

Which is the third longest ? m. 

Which are the next fourteen longest Rivers ? 
Which are two next longest Rivers ? d. g. 
Which are the nine next longest Rivers ? 

Which are the two next longest Rivers ? b. s. 
Which are the seven next ? wain-kif. 

Which are the two next ? t. y. 

Which are the eleven next? c. c. c. ah. a. 

dum. TOP. 


Which is the longest River in N. America? m. 
Which is the second longest River ? m. 

Which are the 3 next longest ? m. a. r. 

f ■ ■ 

Which is the longest River in the U. States? m. 
Which is the second longest ? m. The third ? a. 


* The learner will find, that it will greatly assist his memory 
to combine the initials of those rivers which are of the same 

• length. The initials of those 2000 miles in length are chalk manvy 
prop. Those of 1500 miles in length, some crust, &c. 

20 * 


234 


QUESTIONS. 


Which are the two next? c. r. The two next? 

K. W. 


Which is the longest River in S. America ? a. 
Which are the two next longest ? p. p. 

Which are the 4 next longest ? muto. 

Which is the longest River in Europe ? v. 
Which is the second longest ? d. The third ? d. 

Which are the 7 longest Rivers in Asia ? ho. 
lacky. 

Which is the next longest River ? g. 

Which are the 2 next longest ? s. e. 

Which is the longest River in Africa ? n. 

Which is the next longest ? c. or z. 


ISLANDS. 

Where is New Holland ? Borneo ? Madagascar ? 
Great Britain ? Cuba? Sumatra? Iceland? Ja- 
va ? Ireland ? St. Domingo ? Sicily ? Niphon ? 
Jamaica? New Guinea? Luzon? New Hebrides? 
Long Island ? Owyhee ? 


MOUNTAINS. 

Where are the Himmaleh Mountains? Andes? 
Alps ? Altay ? Atlas ? White Mountains ? Mount 
Elias? Ural? Gauts? Chilian? Rocky? Cum- 
berland ? Carpathian ? ♦ Mountains of the Moon ? 
Taurus ? Appenines ? Sierra Morena ? 

Which are the higest Mountains on the globe ? h. 
Which are the highest Mountains in Europe ? a. 
Which are the highest in S. America ? a. 
Which is the highest Mountain in N. America? e. 


QUESTIONS, 


235 


Which are the highest Mountains in the U. States ? 

w. 

Which is the highest Volcano on the globe ? 


SEAS. 

Where is the Mediterranean Sea ? China ? Bal- 
tic ? Caspian ? Caribbean ? Aral ? White ? 
Red? Yellow? Black? Blue? North? Arabian? 
Irish ? Okhotsk ? Azof? Dead Sea ? 


BAYS. 

Where is Hudson’s Bay ? Bay of Bengal ? Baf- 
fin’s ? Biscay ? Chesapeake ? Honduras ? 


LAKES. 

Where is Lake Superior ? Baikal ? Maravi ? 
Winnipeg? Tshany ? Dembea ? Titicaca? Huron? 
Onega ? Salt ? Ladoga ? Nicaragua ? Slave ? Ge- 
neva ? Champlain ? Wetter ? 


GULFS. 

Where is the Gulf of Mexico ? St. Lawrence ? 
Venice? California? Guinea? Bothnia? Corea? 
Carpentaria? Tarento ? Florida? Persian? Ge- 
noa ? 


straits. 

Where is the Strait of Gibraltar? Babelmandel ? 
Magellan ? Cook’s ? Bhering’s ? Otranto ? Bel- 
lisle ? Sunda ? Bonefacio ? Hudson’s ? Bass’ ? 
Davis’ ? Dover ? Ormus ? Messina ? 


CAPES. 

Where is Cape Farewell ? North ? Taymour ? 
Prince of Wales ? Clear ? Lopatka ? Sable ? 
Horn ? Good Hope ? Comorin ? Romania ? St. 
Lucas ? Verd ? St. Roque ? Cod ? Guardafui ? 
Antonio ? La Hogue ? Bon ? Cape Matapan ? 


236 


QUESTIONS. 


TRAVELS ON THE DIFFERENT MAPS. 

How will you sail from W ashington to London ? 

For what is England distinguished ? 

What magnificent edifice do you find in London ? 

How will you sail from London to St. Petersburg ? 

r " 

When and by whom was St. Petersburg founded ? 

What can you say of the Russian Empire ? 

What is the character of the Russians ? 

How will you sail from St. Petersburg to Paris ? 

Describe Paris. For what is France noted ? 

What is the character of the French ? 

How will you sail from Paris to Madrid ? 

Describe Madrid. What is the most favourite 
amusement of the Spaniards ? What is the most 
noted curiosity of Spain ? 

What is the character of the Spaniards ? 

How will you sail from Madrid to Rome ? 

Describe Rome. Which is the largest, Rome or 
Naples ? 

What was Italy formerly , and what is its present 
state ? What does Italy abound in ? 

What is the character of the Italians ? 

How will you sail from Rome to Constantinople ? 

Describe Constantinople. W T hat does the Tur- 
kish Empire embrace ? When did the Turks take 
Constantinople ? 

For what is Turkey celebrated ? Who formerly 
inhabited Turkey ? What are the principal produc- 
tions ? 

What is the character of the Turks? Of the 
Greeks ? Which do you like best ? Why ? 

In what are the Greeks now engaged 1 


QUESTIONS. 


237 


How will you sail from Constantinople to Acre ? 

What can you say of Turkey in Asia ? What did 
it once contain ? For what is Turkey in Asia famous ? 

Of what does the Population consist? Describe 
Jerusalem. What magnificent ruins do you find in 
Turkey in Asia ? 

How will you sail from Acre to Cairo ? 5 

Describe Cairo. What can you say of Egypt ? 

What wonderful monuments of antiquity do you 
find here ? For what purpose were the Pyramids 
built ? Describe the inhabitants of Egypt. 

How will you sail from Cairo to Tunis ? 

What celebrated ruins do you find near Tunis? 

When was Carthage founded ? When destroyed ? 

What animals, serpents and insects do you find 
in the Barbary states ? For what are the inhabit- 
ants noted ? 

How will you sail from Tunis to Calcutta ? 

Describe Calcutta. To what nation does it be. 
long ? 

What can you say of Hindoostan ? 

What is the character of the Hindoos ? 

Into how many castes are they divided ? 

What remarkable tree do you find in Hindoostan ? 

What mines in Hindoostan ? 

How will you sail from Calcutta to Nanking ? 

Describe Nanking. What can you say respecting 
China ? 

What stupendous work of antiquity do you find in 
the northern part of China ? For what purpose was 
it built ? 


238 


QUESTIONS. 


What is the most common drink in China ? Tea. 
On what does it grow ? 

What 3 Seas border on China ? 

What does the Chinese Empire embrace ? 

How will you sail from Nanking to Acapulco ? 

For what is Mexico celebrated ? 

What celebrated work of the ancient inhabitants 
do you find in Mexico ? What can you say of it ? 
How will you sail from Acapulco to Buenos Ayres ? 

What can you say of the United Provinces ? 

What singular vegetable do you find here ? 

How will you sail from Buenos Ayres to N. York ? 

Describe New York. For what are the Middle 
States distinguished ? 

How will you sail from New York to New Orleans, 
through the United States ? Describe New Orleans. 

For what are the Western States distinguished? 
How will you sail from New Orleans to Baltimore ? 

For what are the southern states distinguished ? 
How will you sail from Baltimore to Boston ? 

What can you say of the New England States ? 
Describe Boston. Which is the oldest settled 
town in New England ? Describe Plymouth. 

How will you sail from Boston to Hartford ? 
Describe Hartford. 


LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 

What city in 41° N. latitude and 29° E. longitude ? 
What city in 55° N. lat. and 12° E. Ion. ? 






QUESTIONS. 


239 


What city in 49° N. lat. and 2° E. Ion. ? 
What city in 40° N. lat. and 75° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 40° N. lat. and 116° E. Ion.? 
What city in 30° N. lat. and 90° W. Ion.? 
What city in 404° N. lat. and 74° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 424° N. lat. and 704° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 39° N. lat. and 78° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 344° S. lat. and 584° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 12° S. lat. and 76° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 60° N. lat. and 30° E. Ion.? 
What city in 224° N. lat. and 88^° E. Ion.: 
What city in. 23° S. lat. and 43° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 47° N. lat. and 70° W. Ion. ? 
What city in 194° N. lat. and 100° W. Ion. ? 
What cape in 34° S. lat. and 18° E. Ion. ? 
What cape in 56° S. lat. and 67° VV. Ion. ? 
What cape in 8° N. lat. and 78° E. Ion. ? 
What cape in 364° N. lat. and 22° E. Ion. ? 
What cape in 594° N. lat. and 43° W. Ion. ? 
What island in 16° S. lat. and 6° W. Ion. ? 


What is the latitude and longitude of London ? Paris ? 
Constantinople ? Peking ? Philadelphia ? Samarcand ? 
Home? Calcutta? Quito? Cape Horn? Cape of Good 
Hope ? Cape Matapan ? North Cape ? Cape Comorin ? 
Cape Farewell ? 


What cities on and near the parallel of 40° N. latitude ? 
50° ? 60° ? 30° ? 20° ? 10° ? 

What places have no latitude ? 

What is the greatest latitude a place can have ? 

What is the greatest longitude a place can have ? 


(ffioternments. 

Q. How many simple forms of Government are there ? 

A. Three, Monarchy, Aristocracy, and De- 
mocracy. 

Q. How many kinds of monarchies are there ? 

A. Two ; absolute and limited. 


240 


QUESTIONS. 


Q. What is ah absolute monarchy ? 

A. It is a government in which the will of th$ 
frionarch is the law ; as in Turkey, Russia. 

Q. What is a limited monarchy ? 

A. It is a government in which the power of 
the sovereign is limited by law ; as in England. 

Q. What is an aristocracy ? 

A. It is a government administered by a few 
men, usually styled the nobility. 

Q. What is a republic ? 

A. It is that government in which the people 
choose their own rulers ; as in the United States. 

a&eltstons* 

Q. What are the four prevailing religions of the world ? 

A. Christian, Mahometan, Jewish, and Pagan, 
or Heathen. 

Q. What are Christians ? 

A. They are those who believe in Jesus Christ 
as the Saviour. 

Q. What are the great divisions of Christians ? 

A. Catholic, Greek, and Protestant Chris- 
tians, each having peculiar doctrines and modes 

of worship. 

Q. Who are Protestants ? 

A. They are those who have separated from 
the Church of Rome, and no longer acknowledge 
the authority of the Pope. 

Q. How are the Protestants divided ? 

A. Into various sects ; the principal of which 
are Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Congregation- 
aiists, Baptists, Methodists, Friends, or Quakers. 

Q. Who are Roman Catholics ? 

A. Those who have a Pope at their head, and 
are thence often called Papists. 


GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGION. 241 

Q. Who are Greek Christians ? 

A. They are those who never acknowledged 
the authority of the Pope, who resemble the Cath- 
olics in many of their rites and ceremonies . 

Q. What are Mahometans ? 

A. Mahometans are those who believe in Ma- 
homet, an impostor of Arabia, who flourished 600 
years after Christ. 

Q. What are Jews ? 

A. They are those who believe in the Old 
Testament, and reject the New, and expect a 
Saviour yet to come* 

Q. What are Pagans or Heathens ? 

A. They are those who believe in many false 
gods, and worship idols, beasts, reptiles, &c. 


GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGION. 


The following table exhibits the government and religion 
of the different Empires, Kingdoms, States, &c. of the world. 

AMERICA. 


Indians in the N. and) Governments ? 

Religion ? 

W. of N. America ? 

independent Chiefs. 

Pagan. 

British America ? 

Viceroys or GovVs. 

Protest, and Catholic. 

United States ? 

Republican. 

Protestant. 

Mexico ? 

Republican. 

Catholic. 

Guatimala ? 

Republican. 

Catholic. 

Colombia ? 

Republican. 

Catholic. 

Peru ? 

Republican. 

Catholic. 

Bolivia ? 

Republican. 

Catholic. 

Chili ? 

Republican. 

Catholic. 

United Provinces ? 

Republican. 

Catholic. 

Brazil ? 

Limited Monarchy. 

Catholic. 

Guiana ? 

Viceroys or Gov. 

Catholic. 

Amazonia ? 

Independent Chiefs. 

Pagan. 

Patagonia ? 

Independent Chiefs. 

21 

Pagan. 


242 


GOVERNMENTS AND RELIGION. 


EUROPE. 


Great Britain? 
France ? 

Spain ? 

Portugal? 
Netherlands ? 
Wirtemburg ? 
Hanover ? 

Saxony ? 

Bavaria ? 

Norway and Sweden ? 
Naples ? 

States of the Church ? 
Russia ? 

Prussia ? 

Denmark ? 

Austria ? 

Turkey ? 

Sardinia ? 

Switzerland ? 


Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Limited Monarchy. 
Hierarchy. 

Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Republican. 


Protestant. 

Catholic. 

Catholic.. 

Catholic. 

Protestant. 

Protest, and Cath. 

Protest, and Cath. 

Protest, and Cath. 

Protest, and Cath. 

Protestant. 

Catholic. 

Catholic. 

Greek Church. 

Protestant. 

Protestant. 

Catholic. 

Mahometan. 

Catholic. 

Protest, and Cath. 


Arabia? 

Turkey? 

Persia ? 
Afghanistan ? 
Beloochistan ? 
Hindoostan ? 
Thibet ? 

Birman Empire ? 
Empire of Tonkin ? 
Chinese Empire ? 
Ind. Tartary ? 
Siberia ? 

Empire of Japan? 


ASIA. 


Independent Chiefs. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Independent Chiefs. 
Various. 

Theocracy. 

Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Absolute Monarchy. 
Independent Chiefs ? 
Viceroys or Governors 
Absolute Monarchy. 


Mahometan. 

Mahometan. 

Mahometan. 

Mahometan, 

Mahometan. 

Mahom. and Pagan. 

Pagan. 

Pagan. 

Pagan. 

Pagan. 

Mahometan. 

Pagan. 

Pagan. _ 


Little is known respecting the governments of Africa, ex- 
cept in the northern part. Egypt, Tripoli, Tunis and Al- 
giers, are in some degree dependent on Turkey, and may be 
classed among the most absolute monarchies. Morocco is 
an absolute despotism. The religion in all the Barbary 
States is Mahometan. 


INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY. 


243 


PART FOURTH. 


Jtatrotroction to ^stronomjf. 



The Seasons. 


244 


INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY. 


Q. What is astronomy ? 

A. It is the science which teaches the motions 
and the magnitudes of the heavenly bodies. 

Q. Of what does the Solar System consist ? 

A. It consists of the sun, planets, asteroids and 
comets. 

It is called the Solar System , because the sun is supposed 
to be placed in the centre, having all the planets revolving 
round it, at different distances and in different periods of 
time. 

Q. What is the Sun ? 

A. It is an immense spherical body, placed in 
the centre of the system, and gives light and heat 
to the planets, moons, asteroids and comets. It 
revolves on its axis once in 25 days and 10 hours. 

This revolution is determined from the motion of the spots 
on its surface. 

Q. What is a Planet ? 

A. It is an opaque body which appears to us 
like a star, and shines only by reflecting the light 
of the sun. 

Q. How many kinds of planets are there ? 

A. There are two kinds, primary and seconda- 
ry, to which may be added the asteroids . The 
primary planets are those which revolve round 
the sun and regard him only as their centre. The 
secondary planets, called also moons , or satellites , 
are smaller planets, which revolve round the pri- 
maries, and serve to give them light. 

Q. How many primary planets are there ? 

A. There are seven : 1. Mercury ; 2. Venus ; 
3. Earth ; 4. Mars ; 5. Jupiter ; tj. Saturn ; 7. 
Herschel. 

Q. How many secondary planets are there ? 

A. There are eighteen. The earth has 1 : 
Jupiter 4 ; Saturn 7 ; Herschel 6. 


i 


INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY. 


245 


Q. What are the asteroids ? 

A. They are four very small planets, situated 
between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter ; called 
Ceres, Pallas, Juno, and Vesta. 


SUN AND PLANETS. 


j Day , or 
Diame - revolution 
ter in on the axis 


Year, or revo- 
lution round 
the sun . 


Distance 
from the 
Sun in 


Bulk , 
the 

Earth 



miles. 

D.H.M. 

Sun 

883246 

25 10 0 

Mercury 

3224 

unknown 

Venus 

7667 

0 23 22 

Earth 

7928 

0 23 56 

Mars 

4189 

1 00 39 

Jupiter 

89170 

0 9 56 

Saturn 

79042 

0 10 16 

Herschel 

35112 

unknown 


Y. D. II. M. 


miles . 


being 1. 

1380000 


0 87 23 

0 224 16 

1 00 0 
1321 18 

11315 14 
29 164 7 
83 294 8 


14 

41 

00 

23 

39 

19 

39 


36000000 

68000000 

96000000 

144000000 

491000UOO 

901000000 

18000u0000 


i 

8 

9 ' 

1 

_ 7 _ 

2 4 

1400 

1000 

90 


COMETS. 

Q. What are the Comets ? 

A. They are large, solid, opaque bodies, 
which revolve round the sun in very elliptical 
orbits. 

The number of comets belonging to our system, is supposed 
to be 540. The figures of comets, are very different. Some 
of them emit luminous matter on all sides resembling hair* ; 
others have a long, luminous, transparent tail, projecting from 
that part which is opposite to the sun. 

Their apparent magnitudes are also very different. Some 
appear no larger than the fixed stars ; others as large as Ve- 
nus ; and others much larger. 

The velocity of a comet is greater than that of a planet, 
and increases as it approaches the sun. That of 1680 when 
nearest the sun, moved with the amazing velocity of 880,000 
miles an hour. 


* The word comet is derived from coma, or cometa, a Greek 
word signifying hairy. 


21 * 


246 INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY. 


FIXED STARS. 

Q. What are the fixed stars ? 

A. They are those luminous bodies which ap- 
pear in the heavens, far beyond the planets, from 
which they are distinguished by their twinkling . 

These are called fixed stars , because they always keep the 
same situation, in relation to each other ; and appear to have 
no proper motion of their own. The distance of the fixed 
stars from the earth, is almost inconceivable ; light, which 
flies 164,000 miles in a second, would be more than three 
years in passing fiom one of them to the earth. 

These stars being at such an immense distance, cannot re- 
ceive their light from the sun as the planets, but must shine 
by their own light ; and hence they are supposed to be suns 
to other systems, and to have worlds revolving round them, 
inhabited perhaps by intelligent and immortal beings. 

The number of the fixed stars is unknown. With the na- 
ked eye we can see about 2,000, but by the help of telescopes, 
many millions can be discovered. 


THE EARTH. 

Q. How many motions has the Earth ? 

A. Two one round its axis ; the other round 
the sun. It revolves on its axis once in 24 hours, 
and causes a continual succession of day and 
night, and an apparent motion of the heavenly 
bodies from east to west. 

It completes its revolution round the sun once 
in a year, and occasions the difference in the 
length of the days and nights, and the agreeable 
variety in the seasons. 

The earth is not a perfect sphere, but an oblate spheroid, 
elevated at the equator, and depressed at the poles ; the 
equatorial diameter being 34 miles longer than the polar. 

The earth is surrounded by a thin, invisible, elastic fluid, 
called air, which extends to a considerable height above it. 
The air, together which the clouds and vapours that float in it, 
is called the atmosphere . The height to which the atmosphere 


INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY. 247 

extends, has never been fully ascertained, but it is supposed 
to be about 45 miles. 


THE MOON. 

Q. What is the Moon ? 

A. It is an opaque body like the earth, and 
shines entirely by light received from the sun. 
Its diameter is 2180 miles and its distance from 
the centre of the earth 240,000 miles. Its bulk 
to that of the earth is as 1 to 49. 

The moon revolves round the earth, from change to 
change, in 29 days 12 hours 44 minutes. 

The surface of the moon is greatly diversified with ine- 
qualities, which through a telescope have the appearance of 
hills and valleys. 

When the moon is in conjunction, or in the same part of 
the heavens with the sun, it is called the new moon ; when 
it is in opposition, or 180 degrees distant, it is called th efull 
moon . 

The moon revolves on its axis but once in its revolution 
round the earth, and consequently its day is a little longer 
than 29£ of our days. 


ECLIPSES. 

Q. What is an Eclipse ? 

A. It is a partial, or total privation of the light 
of the sun or moon. 

Q. What is the cause of an eclipse of the sun ? 

A. It is caused by the interposition of the moon 
between the earth and sun, and consequently 
must happen when the moon is in conjunction 
with the sun, or at the new moon. 

Q. What causes an eclipse of the moon ? 

A. It is caused by an interposition of the earth 
between the sun and .moon, and therefore must 
happen at the full m,o.on, or when the moon i$ 
180 degrees distant from the sun. 


248 


INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY. 


The diameter of the sun and moon is supposed to be di- 
vided into 12 parts, called digits ; and an eclipse is said to 
be so many digits, according to the number of those parts, 
which are involved at the greatest darkness. 


THE SEASONS. 

Q. What occasions the different seasons ? 

A. They are occasioned by the axis of the 
earth, being inclined to the level of its orbit al- 
ways in one direction, in its circuit round the 
sun ; so that one end of the axis is directed to- 
wards the sun at one season of the year, and 
from the sun at another. This also occasions 
the variation of climate, and the different lengths 
of day and night. [See the figure representing 
the Seasons.] 

From the 20th of March to ^the 22d of September the 
north pole inclines to the sun, and it is summer in the north- 
ern hemisphere and winter in the southern; from the 22d of 
September to the 20th of March the north pole declines 
from the sun, and it is winter in the northern hemisphere and 
summer in the southern. 

In the same manner it will be seen, that during one half 
the year the north pole is continually illuminated by the 
sun while the south pole is in darkness ; and consequently 
the days in the northern hemisphere will be more than 12 
hours long, and those in the southern hemisphere, less than 12 
hours ; and during the other half the year, the south pole 
is constantly in the light, and the north pole in darkness, 
and consequently the days in the southern hemisphere will 
be more than 12 hours long, and those in the northern less 
than 12 hours; thus causing the different lengths of day and 
night. 

At the equator the days and nights are always equal, be- 
ing 12 hours each; but as you proceed from the equator, they 
vary in length according to the latitude and season. 

In latitude 16° 44', the day is 13 hours long; — in 41° 24', 
it is 15 hours in length; — in 61° 18', it is 19 hours; — in 66° 
32', it is 24 hours; — in 67° 18' the longest day is one month; 
in 69° 33', it is 2 months; in 77° 40 ', it is 4 months; and at 
the poles, 6 months. 


INTRODUCTION TO ASTRONOMY. 249 

[See the scale on the Map of the World, representing the 
longest days and nights, also the zones and climates.] 

Questions. — What is the length of the days and nights at 
the equator ? What is the length of the longest day in 8° 
34'? What is the length of the longest day in 16° 44'? 
In 24° 12' ? In 30° 48' ? In 36° 31' ? In 41° 24' ? In 45° 
32'? In 49° % ? In 54° 30'? What is the length af the 
longest day in 67° 18' ? In 60° 33' ? In 73° 5' ? What is 
the length of the longest day at the poles ? What is the 
length of the longest night ? How many days and nights are 
there at the poles in a year ? 


CLIMATES. 

Climate is a portion of the earth’s surface contained be- 
tween 2 small circles parallel to the equator, and of such a 
breadth that the longest day in the parallel nearest the equa- 
tor is half an hour shorter than in the next more remote, in 
the torrid and temperate zones, — and one month in the frigid 
zones. 

All places in the same latitude, are in the same climate, — 
but it must not be inferred from thence that they have the 
same atmospherical temperature, as this depends on various 
causes. Mountains, lakes, deserts, plains, &c. have great 
e$ect on the atmosphere ; as high mountains under the 
equator are covered with perpetual snow, and deserts are 
parched with constant heat. 

Questions. — How many climates between the equator and 
each polar circle ? A. 24. How many climates between 
each polar circle and its pole ? A. 6. In what latitude does 
the first climate end ? (See the scale on the map of the 
world.) \ A. In 8° 44'. In what latitude does the second 
climate end ? A. In about 16^°. In what latitude does the 
third climate end? Fourth climate? Fifth? Sixth? 
Seventh ? Eighth Climate ? & c. &c. 

Note. — Jt will be seen that the climates are placed in regular 
order on the scale as far as 49? 2', increasing in length half an 
hour, as you proceed from the equator, — after which they are not 
laid down regularly till you come to the polar circle. Here you 
will perceive by the scale that the days in each climate instead of 
being only half an hour longer than in the one nearer the equator, 
are one month longer as you approach the pole. 


250 


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 


DhgSi'cal (Keoaraghg. 

Q. What Seasons have they in the torrid zone ? 

A. The only distinction of seasons in the torrid 
zone is from hot and dry to hot and rainy. Most 
countries of the torrid zone have six months in- 
clining to a wet, and six months inclining to a dry 
air. 

Q. How many seasons are there in the frigid zone ? 

A. In the frigid zone they have but two^ sea- 
sons, winter and summer . 

On continents, the weather is more settled than in islands; 
the heat of summer is greater in the former, the cold of 
winter is less intense in the latter. 

[In islands the heat is tempered by clouds and vapours, 
from the surrounding sea ; and from the same cause the 
weather is inconstant.] 


WINDS. 

Q. What is Wind ? 

A. It is air put in motion, occasioned chiefly 
by means of heat. 

When any part of the air is heated by the sun or other- 
wise, it expands, and ascends towards the higher parts of 
the atmosphere, and the neighbouring air rushes in to supply 
its place ; and there will therefore, be a stream or current of 
air from all parts towards the region in which the heat pre- 
dominates, This pressure of the air is what is called wind. 

Q. What is the velocity of wind ? 

A. A gentle breeze moves about 4 miles an 
hour ; a common brisk wind about 15 miles ; a 
high wind 30 ; a storm 60 ; a violent hurricane 
100 miles an hour. 

Q. How many kinds of tropical winds are there ? 

A. Three, the general trade winds ; the mon- 
soons ; the land and sea breezes . 


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 


251 


1. The general trade winds blow from east to west, ex- 
tending to nearly 30° of latitude on each side of the equator 
nearly round the globe. 

2. The monsoons are periodical winds, which prevail in 
the Indian ocean, and blow six months in one direction, and 
during the other six months in an opposite direction. Their 
change at the vernal and autumnal equinox is accompanied 
with terrible storms of rain, lightning and thunder. 

3. The land and sea breezes are periodical winds, which 
blow from the land during the night, and from the sea, du- 
ring the day. 

Winds are affected by the countries over which they pass, 
being rendered pestilential by the heat of deserts and the pu- 
trid exhalations of lakes and marshes. 

In Africa and Arabia, a wind blows from the deserts called 
the Samiel or Simoon , which frequently produces instant 
death. 

On the western coast of Africa is a similar wind, called 
Harmatlan , producing a dryness and heat almost insupport- 
able. 

A warm, unpleasant wind from Africa, prevails in the 
southern part of Europe, called the Sirocco, producing great 
uneasiness and debility in the system. 


TIDES. 

Q. What is the Tide? 

A. It is the regular elevation and depression of 
the ocean, which happens twice every 24 hours, 
caused by the attraction of the moon and of the 
sun. 

At the new and full moon, the tides are greatest, and are 
called spring-tides ; at the first and last quarters, they are 
least, and are called neap-tides ; and the highest are near the 
time of the equinoxes. 


PRODUCTIONS OF THE EARTH. 

Q. How are the productions of the earth arranged ? 

A. Under three grand divisions, called king- 
doms, viz : The mineral kingdom , the vegetable 
kingdom , and the animal kingdom . 


252 PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 

\ 

1. The mineral kingdom contains all earths and stones, 
mineral combustibles, salts, and metals. 

2. The vegetabte kingdom includes all trees, shrubs, and 
plants. 

3. The animal kingdom includes all living creatures ; as, 
bipeds, quadrupeds, fowls, fishes, • reptiles, insects, and 
worms. 


VARIETIES OF THE HUMAN SPECIES. 

Q. How many grand varieties of the human species are 
there ? 

A. There are five ; but they imperceptibly ap- 
proach and are lost in each other. / 

1. The European race has regular features and fair com- 
plexions, and includes the Europeans and their descendants 
in America ; Turks, Tartars, Arabians, Persians, Hindoos, 
Abyssinians, Egyptians, and Moors. 

2. The Asiatic or Mongolian race has a brown, or olive 
complexion ; having flat foreheads, small eyes, coarse, 
straight, black hair^ and wide mouths. This race includes 
the Chinese, Japanese, Mongolians, Siberian tribes, Nova 
Zemblans, Laplanders, Greenlanders, and Esquimaux In- 
dians. 

3. The Malay race has a dark brown complexion, with 
large features, strong hair, broad nostrils, and great mouths. 
This race includes the inhabitants of Malacca, of the Asiat- 
ic islands, of Australasia, and of Polynesia. 

4. The African race has a jet black complexion, woolly 
hair, flat noses, prominent chins, and thick lips. This race 
includes the Negroes of Africa. 

5. The American race has a copper colour, coarse straight, 
black hair, high cheek bones, sunken eyes, and stout mascu- 
line limbs. This race includes all the Indians dispersed over 
the American continent, except the Esquimaux. 

Notwithstanding the numerous varieties in the human 
species, the Scriptures inform us, that they are the offspring 
of one common parent ; that the delicate European and the 
swarthy Ethiopian are brothers, descended from the same 
aheestor. 

Climate, or the temperature of the air, is the principal 
cause of the different complexion, and the external form of 


PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY. 


253 


the human race, which when extremely warm or cold, pro- 
duces in process of time, a dark, — and when temperate, a 
fair complexion. Difference of education, food, clothing, 
modes of life, and particular customs may be assigned as oth- 
er causes. 


To which race do you belong ? 

What reason can you assign to prove it ? 


INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

2.1 sc oE the Globes. 

Q. What is a Globe ? 

A. It is a round body, whose surface is every 
where equally remote from the centre. 

Q. How many kinds of Artificial Globes are there ? 

A. Two : Terrestrial and Celestial. 

Q. What is a Terrestrial Globe ? 

A. It is an artificial representation of the 
earth, on which the different empires, kingdoms, 
&c. of the world are truly represented, accord- 
ing to their relative situation. 

Q. What is a Celestial Globe ? 

A. It is an artificial representation of the heav- 
ens, on which the stars are laid down in their 

natural situations. 

Q. What is the Axis of the Earth ? 

A. It is an imaginary line passing through the 

centre of it, upon which it is supposed to turn. 

Q. What are the Poles of the Earth ? 

A. They are the two extremities of the axis, 

where it is supposed to cut the surface of the 

earth. 


22 


254 


GLOBES. 


Q. What is the Brazen Meridian ? 

A. It is the circle in which the globe turns, and 
is divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. 

Q. What is the Quadrant of Altitude ? 

A. It is a thin slip of brass divided into 90°, 
and is generally used to determine the distance 
of one place from another. 

Q. What is the Hour Circle ? 

A. It is a small circle of brass, with an index 
or pointer, fixed to the north pole. 

Q. What is the Horizon? 

A. It is a great circle, which separates the vis- 
ible half of the heavens from the invisible. 

Q. How is the Horizon represented on the artificial 
Globe ? 

A. By the wooden circular frame in which the 

globe stands. 

Q. What is the Ecliptic ? 

A. It is the great circle, vdiich the earth de- 
scribes annually in its revolution round the sun. 

Q. How is the Ecliptic divided ? 

A. Into twelve equal parts of 30 degrees each, 
called signs . 


The names and characters of the signs, with the months in 
which the sun enters them, are as follow : 


Northern Signs. 


c\p Aries, 
b Taurus. 
U Gemini. 
S3 Cancer. 
SI Leo. 
tt )2 Virgo. 


March 21st. 
April, 19th. 
May 20th. 
June 21st. 
July 22nd. 
Augf. 22nd. 


Southern Signs . 
rC=Libra. Sept. 23d 

TIE Scorpio. 

/ Sagitarius. 

V$ Capricorn. 

^Aquarius. 

Pisces. 


Oct. 23d. 
Nov. 22d. 
Dec. 21st. 
Jan. 20th. 
Feb. 19th. 


■ 'A o o > v — 

The first six are called northern signs because they are 
north of the equator ; the last six are called southern signs, 
because they are south of the equator. 

Q. What is the Zodiac ? 


A. It is a broad belt in the heavens, 16° wide ; 
in the middle of which is the ecliptic. It com- 
prehends the orbits of all the planets. 


GLOBES. 


255 


QUESTIONS ON THE 

TERRESTRIAL GLOBE. 

Which Grand Division extends farthest north ? 

At what place does Asia extend farthest north ? 

At what place does Europe ? N. America ? 

Supposing the Arctic ocean was navigable, in 
what direction must you sail, in going from North 
Cape, in a direct line, to Icy Cape ? 

What place is there on the globe, from which you 
can travel only in one direction ? 

What Cape in Asia lies opposite to Baffin’s Bay ? 

Towards what two points of the compass must 
you steer, in sailing from Spitsbergen to Bhering’s 
Strait across the North pole ? 

Through what countries will you pass, and what 
waters will you cross, in travelling on the Arctic 
Circle round the globe, commencing at Bhering’s 
Strait ? 

Travel in the same manner, on the Tropic of Can- 
cer, beginning at Cape St. Lucas. 

The Equator, commencing at Quito. 

The Tropic of Capricorn, beginning at Rio Ja- 
neiro. 

The parallel of 40° N. lat. beginning at Philadel- 
phia. 

There are two routes from New York to Canton ; 
describe each. 

In what direction from Philadelphia to Cairo ? 
Peking? London 1 Rio Janeiro ? Calcutta? St. 
Petersburg ? Rome ? Morocco ? Quito ? 

Does Asia or N. America extend farther south ? 
South America or New Holland ? 

One of the Tropics passes near the centre of one 


256 


GLOBES. 


of the Continents; which Tropic? and what Con- 
tinent ? 

What places are directly south of the North pole ? 

What waters will you cross in sailing from Boston 
to Okhotsk ? 

From Okhotsk to Buenos Ayres ? 

From Buenos Ayres to Hartford ? 

Describe the limits of each Zone. 

Which Grand Division of the globe lies mostly in 
the Torrid Zone ? 

In what Zone is Icy Cape ? Cape Horn ? Cape 
Comorin ? Cape Tagymour ? Cape Verd ? 

Which way must a ship steer, in sailing from 
New York to the Cape of Good Hope ? 

From the Cape of Good Hope to Batavia? 

From Batavia to Cape Horn ? 

From Cape Horn to London ? 

From London to New York ? 

Is there more land or water on the surface of the 
Earth ? 

How much of the Earth’s surface is covered with 
water ? A. About two thirds 

What land do you find in the south Frigid Zone ? 

What places are north of the 90° ofS. latitude ? 

What Sea in the western hemisphere, nearly in 
the latitude of the China Sea ? 

What four Seas are intersected by the parallel of 
40° N. latitude ? 

Does Europe or Africa extend farther west ? 

What places have no latitude ? 

There are 23 seas on the globe ; what are their 
names, and where are they ? 

Which Grand Division of the globe has the great- 
est number of Seas in and around it ? 

On which side of the Equator is there the most 
land ? 


globes. 


267 


What places are south of 90° ofN. latitude ? 

There are two routes by which you can sail from 
Boston to Calcutta ; mention each. 

Which is the most northern Island on the globe? 

Which is the most southern Island ? 

What is Longitude ? 

From which meridian is Longitude generally reck- 
oned ? 

What is the greatest Longitude a place can have ? 

Why can a place have no more than 180° of Lon- 
gitude ? 

In what direction from Iceland is Cape Verd ? 

In what direction from the Island of Hainan is 
Owyhee ? 

In what direction from Spitsbergen is the Cape of 
Good Hope ? 

Is the eastern coast of Greenland, or the western 
coast of Africa farther east ? 

Supposing the Southern Ocean was navigable, to- 
wards what two points of the compass must a ship 
steer, in sailing from the Island of New Zealand to 
St. Helena over the South Pole ? 

Which extends farthest east, Asia or New Hol- 
land ? 

What are Meridians ? 

How many Meridians are drawn on the globe you 
are using ? 

What length of time does it require for the Sun 
to pass from one Meridian to another ? 

What is the difference of time between Quito and 
Rome ? 

Is the time at Rome faster or slower than at Qui- 
to ? Why ? 

What is the difference of time between London 
and Peking ? 

Supposing it 6 o’clock in the morning at Phila- 

22* 


258 


PROBLEMS. 


delphia, what time is it at London ? Rome ? Con- 
stantinople ? 

What is the difference of time between Cape Verd 
and the Gulf of Darien ? * ! 

When it is noon at Washington, what time is it at 
Irkutsk ? Rome ? Quito ? Bhering’s Straits ? 
Bencoolen ? 

Does South America or Greenland extend farther 
east ? 

Which extends farthest east, Europe or Africa ? 

Which is farther north, L. Baikal or L. Winnipeg? 

What places have the same seasons of the year ? 

A. Those in the same latitude. 

When it is summer in the United States what sea- 
son is it in China ? Chili ? France ? New Hol- 
land ? Spain ? Patagonia ? 

When it is winter at the Cape of Good Hope, 
what season is it in England ? 

Why should not the Ecliptic be drawn parallel to 
the Equator ? 


PROBLEMS. 

PROBLEM I. 

To find the Latitude of any place. 

Rule. — Bring the given place to the brass meri- 
dian, and the degree above the place is the latitude. 

What is the latitude of Philadelphia ? A. 40° N. 
Of Boston ? A. 422° N. Cape Horn ? London ? 
Peking ? Cape of Good Hope ? Paris ? Calcutta ? 
What places have no latitude ? 


PROBLEMS. 


259 


PROBLEM II. 


To find the Longitude of any place. 

Rule. — Bring the place to the brass meridian, and 
the degree on the Equator under the meridian is the 
longitude. 

What is the longitude of Philadelphia ? 75° W. 

Boston? New York? Peking? Lima? 

What places have the same longitude as New 
York ? Stockholm ? London ? 

When it is 12 o’clock at Stockholm, what inhabit- 
ants of the earth have the same hour? 


FROBLEM III. 


To find any place whose latit ude and longitude is given. 


Rule. — Find the longitude on the Equator, and 
bring it to the brass meridian ; then find the latitude 
on the meridian ; and under it is the place sought. 
What place has 77|° W. long, and 39 Q N. lat ? 
A. Washington ? 


What places have the following latitudes and lon- 
gitude ? 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


49° north 
32° north 
23° south 
41° north 


121° east. 
81 t° west. 
42 1° west. 
91r° east. 


PROBLEM IV. 

To find the distance between any two places. 

Rule. — Lav the Quadrant of Altitude over both 
%/ 

places, and the degrees between them multiplied by 
094 will give the English miles. 

What is the distance between the Island of Ber- 

t 

mudas and St. Helena ? 

A. 731X691—51081 miles. 

22 ** 


260 


PROBLEMS. 


PROBLEM V. 

To rectify the Globe for the latitude of a j)lace. 

Rule. — Elevate the pole till the horizon cuts the 
meridian in the latitude of the place. Rectify the 
Globe for the latitude of London. 

/ PROBLEM VI. 

The hour at one place being given, to find what hour it is at any 

other place. 

Rule. — Bring the place where the hour is given 
to the meridian, and set the index of the hour circle to 
that hour ; then turn the Globe till the place where 
the hour is required comes under the meridian, and 
the index will point to the hour at that place. 

When it is 10 o'clock in the morning at London, 
what hour is it at St. Petersburg ? A. The differ- 
ence of time is two hours — 12. 

When it is noon at Hartford, what hour is it in 
London ? Constantinople ? 

PROBLEM VII. 

To find the Sun's declination. 

Rule. — Find the sun’s place in the ecliptic, and 
bring it to the brass meridian and the degree over it 
is the sun’s declination. 

What is the sun’s declination on the 1 5th of April ? 
A. 10° N. Jan. 21 ? June 21 ? Sept. 21 ? Nov. 
21 ? 

PROBLEM VIII. 

To find the time of the sun's rising and setting at any place. 

Rule. — Find the sun’s declination and elevate the 
north cr south pole, according as the declination is 
north or south so many degrees above the horizon, 
as are equal to the sun’s declination ; bring the given 


PROBLEMS. 


261 


place to the brass meridian, and set the index of the 
hour circle to 12. Turn the globe eastward till the 
given place comes to the horizon, and the index will 
shew the time of the sun’s rising. Turn the globe 
to the west verge of the horizon, and the index will 
shew the time of his setting. 

At what time does the sun rise and set at Hartford 
on the 5th of February ? 

A. The sun rises at 7, and sets at 5. 

OR, 

Rectify the globe for the latitude of the place, find 
the sun’s place in the ecliptic and bring it to the 
brass meridian, and set the index of the hour circle 
to 12. Turn the globe westward till the sun’s place 
comes to the horizon, and the index will show the 
time of the sun’s setting ; these hours taken from 
12 will give the rising. At what time does the sun 
rise and set at Hartford on the 5th of May ? A. 
The sun rises at 5, and sets at 7. What time does 
.the sun rise and set on the 21st of June at Quito ? 
Mexico ? London ? Cape North ? Cape Horn ? 

PROBLEM IX. 

To find the length of the day and night at any time in the 

year. 

Rule. — Double the time of the sun’s rising and 
it gives the length of the night. Double the time of 
his setting, and it gives the length of the day. 

What is the length of the shortest day at Hartford ? 
A. 8 h. 56 min. 

What is the length of the longest day and shortest 
night at Edinburg ? 


202 


PROBLEMS. 


PROBLEM X. 

To find the Ant ceci, Periccci , and Antipodes of anyplace. 

EXPLANATION. 

The Antgecians are those who have the same lon- 
gitude as ours, but have the same latitude south as 
we have north. Their summer is our winter. 

Rule. — Bring the given place to the brass meri- 
dian, and count as many degrees on the meridian 
south of the Equator as the given place is north ; 
and you will find the Antaeci. 

The Periaecians are those who lie under the same 
degree of latitude, but have 180° difference of lon- 
gitude. They have contrary hours. Noon when 
we have midnight. 

Rule. — Bring the given place to the brass meri- 
dian, set the index to 12, turn the globe till the in- 
dex points to the other 12, then under the latitude 
of the given place you will find the Periaeci. 

The Antipodes are those who have the same lati- 
tude south that we have north, and differ 180° of 
longitude. Their hours, days, and seasons differ 
from ours. 

Rule. — Bring the given place to the brass me- 
ridian, turn the globe half round, then count as 
many degrees south of the Equator as the given 
place is north, and you will have the Antipodes. 

Required the Antaeci, Periaeci and Antipodes of 
Hartford. 

A. The Antaeci are in the northern part of the 
island of Chiloe. The Periaeci arc in the Desert of 
Shamo in Chinese Empire. The Antipodes are in 
the Southern Ocean south-east of the Island of St. 
Paul. 


PROBLEMS. 


263 


PROBLEM XI. 

To find how many miles make a degree of longitude in any 

given parallel of latitude. 

Rule. — Lay the quadrant of altitude parallel to the 
equator between any two meridians in the given lati- 
tude, which differ in longitude 15 degrees ; the num- 
ber of degrees intercepted between them multiplied 
by 4, will give the length of a degree in geographical 
miles. The geographical miles may be brought into 
English miles, by multiplying by 116, and cutting off 
two figures from the right hand of the product. 

Example. — I. How many geographical and En- 
glish miles make a degree in the latitude of Peking ? 

PROBLEM XII. 

To find the bearing of one place from another. 

Rule. — If both the places be situated in the same 
parallel of latitude, their bearing is either east or 
west from each other ; if they be situated on the 
same meridian, they bear north and south from each 
other ; if they be situated on the same rhumb-line, 
that rhumb-line is their bearing ; if they be not situ- 
ated on the same rhumb-line, lay the quadrant of al- 
titude over the two places, and that rhumb-line 
which is the nearest of being parallel to the quad- 
rant will be their bearing. 

Example. — Which way must a ship steer from 
Lizard Point to the island of Bermudas ? 

Ans — W. S, W. 


264 


ttUBSTIONS. 


QUESTIONS 

EXERCISING THE FROBLEMS ON THE TERRESTRIAL GLOBB. 

1. What inhabitants of the earth have the same 
length of days as those of Philadelphia ? 

2. What inhabitants of the earth have the same 
seasons of the year as those of London ? 

3. When it is 10 o’clock in the evening at Stock- 
holm what inhabitants have the same hour ? 

4. What is the nearest distance between New 
York and the Cape of Good Hope ? 

5. When it is noon at Philadelphia, what inhabit- 
ants of the earth have midnight ? 

6. When it is 10 o’clock in the morning at Lon- 
don, where is it 10 o’clock in the evening ? 

7. What is the sun’s longitude (commonly called 
the sun’s place in the ecliptic) on the 15th of April? 

8. What day of the year is of the same length as 
the 15th of April ? 

9. How much longer is the 5th of May at New 
York than at Quito ? 

10. When it is noon at London, at what places is 
the sun rising and setting, and where is it midnight ? 

11. Are the clocks at Philadelphia faster or slow- 
er than those at London, and how much ? 

22. What is the difference of latitude between 
Cape North and Cape Matapan ? 

13. What is the difference of longitude between 
Philadelphia and Constantinople ? 

14. What is the distance between New York and 
London in English miles ? 

5. What hour is it at London when it is 4 in the 

¥ ning at Calcutta ? 

16. At what time does the sun rise and set at 


QUESTIONS. 


265 


Archangel on the 15th of March, and what is the 
length of the day and night ? 

17. If the sun set at 7 o’clock, at what time does 
it rise, and what is the length of the day ? 

18. How many English miles must I travel west- 
ward from London that my watch may be six hours 
too fast ? 

19. What place upon the globe has the greatest 
longitude, the least longitude, no longitude, and 
every longitude ? 

20. What inhabitants of the earth in the course 
of 12 hours will be in the same situation as their An- 
tipodes ? 

21. At what place on the globe can two ships 
sail directly from each other, and still sail the same 
point of the compass ? 

22. How many English miles must I travel east- 
ward from Philadelphia, that my watch may be 7 
hours too slow ? 

23. Supposing a person could start from Philadel- 
phia precisely at noon on Monday, and keep pace 
with the sun round the globe, at what place would 
he first be told it was Tuesday noon ? 

24. There is a town in Norway where the longest 
day is five times the length of the shortest night, 
what is its name 1 

25. When the sun is setting to the inhabitants of 
Hartford on the 4th of April, where is it rising, and 
where midnight ? 


206 


LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES. 


LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES 

Of some of the 'principal places in the world , with the 
countries in which they are situated , selected from 
the best geographical tables . The longitude is 
reckoned from Greenwich Observatory . 


Names of Places. 

Countries. 

A- 

Latitude. 

r 

o 

Longitude. 

o 

Aberdeen, 

Scotland, 

57 9 N. 

2 28 W. 

Abo, 

Russia, 

60 27 N. 

22 13 E. 

Acapulco, 

Mexico, 

17 10 N. 

101 45 W. 

Adrianople, 

Turkey, 

41 10 N. 

26 30 E. 

Aleppo, 

Albany, 

Syria, 

35 45 N. 

37 20 E. 

U. States, 

42 39 N. 

73 30 W. 

Alexandria, 

Egypt, 

31 13 N. 

29 55 E. 

Amsterdam, 

Netherlands, 

52 22 N. 

4 61 E. 

Athens, 

Turkey, 

38 5 N. 

23 52 E. 

Annapolis, 

U. States, 

38 56 N. 

75 8 W. 

St. Augustine, 

Florida, 

30 10 N. 

81 34 W. 

Baltimore, 

U. States, B. 

39 17 N. 

76 37 W. 

Bagdad, 

Turkey, 

33 20 N. 

44 24 E. 

Barcelona, 

Spain, 

41 23 N. 

2 11 E. 

Bologna, 

Italy, 

44 29 N. 

11 21 E. 

Boston, 

U. States, 

42 25 N. 

70 37 W. 

Bordeaux, 

France, 

44 50 N. 

0 35 W. 

Brussels, 

N etherlands, 

50 51 N. 

4 22 E. 

Buenos Ayres, 

S. America, 

34 35 S. 

58 31 W. 

Bergen, 

Berlin, 

Norway, 

60 24 N. 

5 20 E. 

Prussia, 

52 31 N. 

13 22 E. 

Cadiz, 

Spain, 0. 

36 31 N. 

6 12 W 

Cairo, 

Egypt, 

30 3 N. 

31 21 E. 

Calais, 

France, 

50 57 N. 

1 51 E. 

Calcutta, 

Hindoostan, 

22 35 N. 

88 29 E. 

Canton, 

China, 

23 8 N. 

113 2 E. 

Constantinople, 

Turkey, 

41 1 N. 

28 54 E. 

Charleston, 

U. States, 
Denmark, 

32 44 N. 

80 39 W 

Copenhagen, 

55 41 N. 

12 35 E. 

Dantzic, 

Prussia, J}. 

54 22 N. 

18 34 E. 

Dresden. 

Saxony, 

51 3 N. 

13 42 E. 

Dublin, 

Ireland, 

53 21 N. 

6 6 W 

Dundee, 

Scotland, 

56 28 N. 

2 58 W 


LATITUDES AND LONGITUDES 


Countries. 


Latitude. 

U. States, 


o 

42 

40 

N. 

Scotland. 

E- 

55 

58 

N. 

Denmark, 


56 

2 N. 

Turkey, 


38 


N. 

Greenland, 

, F. 

59 

30 

N. 

Germany, 


49 

55 

N. 

U. States, 


38 

14 

N. 

Switzerland, Or. 

46 

12 

N. 

Italy, 


44 

25 

N. 

Spain, 


36 

5 

N. 

England, 


51 

29 

N. 

Nova Scotia, 21. 

44 

46 

N. 

Germany, 


53 

34 

N. 

Cuba, 


23 

12 

N. 

U. States, 


41 

44 N. 

S. America 


55 

58 

S. 

Japan, £. & J. 

36 

0 

N. 

Syria, 


31 

46 

N. 

Persia, 


32 

52 

N. 

Lapland, 

K- 

68 

52 N . 

Prussia, 


54 

43 

N. 

Jamaica, 


17 

56 

N. 

Italy, 

X. 

43 

33 

N. 

Portugal, 


38 

40 

N. 

England, 


51 

31 

N. 

F ranee, 


45 

46 

N. 

Peru, 


12 

1 

S. 

Spain, 

M. 

40 25 N. 


Names of places. 

Detroit, 

Edinburgh, 

Elsinore, 

Ephesus, 

Cape Farewell, 

Frankfort, 

Frankfort, 

Geneva, 

Genoa, 

Gibraltar, 

Greenwich, 

Halifax, 

Hamburg, 

Havanna, 

Hartford, 

Cape Horn, 
Jedo, 

Jerusalem, 

Ispahan, 

Kola, 

Koningsburg, 

Kingston, 

Leghorn, 

Lisbon, 

London, 

Lyons, 

Lima, 

Madrid, 

Marseilles, 

Mecca, 

Mexico, 

Milan, 

Modena, 

Montpelier, 

Montreal, 

Nanking, 

Naples, 

N. Haven, 

N. York, 

N. Orleans. 
Oporto, 


P’rance. 
Arabia, 
America, 
Austria, 
Italy, 
France, 
Canada, 
China, 
Italy, 

U. States, 
U. States, 
U. States, 
Portugal, 


43 18 N. 
21 40 N. 
19 2j6 N. 
45 28 N. 

44 34 N. 
43 37 N. 

45 50 N. 
32 5 N. 

40 50 N. 

41 18 N. 
40 42 N. 
29 58 N. 

O. 41 10 N. 


267 


Longitude. 

82 56 W. 

3 12 W. 
12 37 E. 
27 53 E. 
42 42 W. 

8 35 E. 
85 28 W. 
6 0 E. 

8 36 E. 

5 22 W. 
0 0 

63 27 W. 

9 55 E. 
82 18 W. 

72 50 VV. 
67 26 W. 

139 40 E. 
35 20 E. 
52 50 E. 
33 1 E. 

21 35 E. 
76 52 W. 

10 16 E. 

9 10 VV. 
0 6 W. 

4 48 E. 
76 49 W. 

3 12 VV. 

5 22 E. 

41 0 E. 

100 6 W. 

9 12 E. 

11 12 E. 

3 53 E. 

73 11 W. 
118 46 E. 

14 17 E. 
72 56 VV. 

74 9 W. 
89 59 W. 

8 27 VV. 


268 

LATITUDES AND 

LONGITUDES. 


Names of places. Countries. 

0 

Latitude. 

Longitude 

Cape Ortegal, 

Spain, 

43 46 N. 

7 39 Wl 

Oxford, 

England, 

51 45 i\. 

1 15 W. 

Palermo, 

Sicily, p. 

38 10 N. 

13 42 E. 

Paris, 

F ranee, 

48 50 N. 

2 20 E. 

Peking, 

China, 

39 54 N. 

116 27 E. 

Petersburg, 

Russia, 

59 56 N. 

30 19 E. 

Philadelphia, 

U. States, 

39 57 N. 

75 13 W 

Providence, 

U. States, 

41 51 N. 

71 26 W 

Portsmouth, 

U. States, 

43 t5 N. 

70 37 W 

Quebec, 

Canada, Q. 

46 55 N. 

69 53 W 

Quito, 

Peru, 

0 13 S. 

77 55 W 

Riga, 

Rus ia, 

57 5 N. 

25 5 E. 

Rome, 

Italy, 

41 54 N. 

12 29 E., 

Rotterdam, 

Netherlands. 

51 56 N. 

4 28 E. 

Samarcand, 

I Tartary, QJ- 

39 45 N. 

63 20 E. 

Savannah, 

U. States, 

32 3 N. 

81 24 W 

Syracuse, 

Sicily 

37 4 N. 

15 31 E. 

Tangiers, 

Morocco, 'X 1 . 

35 55 N. 

5 45 W. 

Tarento, 

Italy, 

40 43 N. 

17 31 E. 

Tornea, 

Lapland, 

65 51 N. 

24 12 E. 

Trieste, 

Austria, 

45 51 N. 

14 3 E. 

T ripoli 

Barb ary, 

32 54 N. 

13 5 E. 

Upsal 

Sweden, U&V-59 52 N. 

17 42 E. 

Venice, 

Austria, 

45 26 N. 

12 4 E. 

Vera Cruz, 

Mexico, 

19 12 N. 

97 20 VV. 

Vienna, 

Austria, 

48 12 N. 

16 16 E. 

W arsaw, 

Poland, W- 

52 14 N. 

21 0 E. 

Washington, 

U. States, 

38 53 N. 

77 43 W. 

Wilna, 

Poland, 

54 41 N. 

25 27 E.i 

York, 

England, Y- 

5.3 59 N. 

1 7 W 

Youghall, 

Ireland, 

51 48 N. 

8 0 W 


X 


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